[Advaita-l] Binary nature of Jnana
H S Chandramouli
hschandramouli at gmail.com
Mon Jul 4 08:39:21 EDT 2022
Reg the question I had raised earlier
<< My understanding is that for a jnAni, there is no rebirth. When it is
held that one has aparoksha jnAna but continues to have viparIta-jnAna,
and he sheds his mortal coil at that stage, is he subject to rebirth or not
Having raised the question, reviewed some of the texts looking for an
answer to this specific issue. Vichara Sagara is one text which advances
the concept of aparOksha jnAna with pratibandhAs. I could not locate any
answer to the above question in that text.
However Swami Vidyaranya has indeed addressed this question in Panchadashi
although with different captions. In Chapter 7, he has nodoubt mentioned
that knowing about the astitva of Brahman without its bhAnatva is parOksha
jnAna while both astitva and bhAnatva is aparOksha jnAnam. (There could be
terminology errors in my language which may be ignored since it is only
incidental and does not contribute much to the issue on hand). However
there is a slight difference in his presentation of parOksha and aparOksha
jnAna in Chapter 1.
<< वाक्यं अप्रतिबद्धं सत् प्राक् परोक्षावभासिते I
करामलवकवद् बोधं अपरोक्षं प्रसूयते II >> Verse 62
<< vAkyaM apratibaddhaM sat prAk parokShAvabhAsite I
karAmalavakavad bodhaM aparokShaM prasUyate II >>
In this verse, Swami Vidyaranya terms jnAna with pratibandha as parOksha
jnAna, and jnAna in the absence of any pratibandha as aparOksha jnAna. Then
he proceeds to mention the phala for both these.
<< परोक्षं ब्रह्म विज्ञानं शाब्दं देशिकपूर्वकं I
बुद्धिपूर्वकृतं पापं कृत्स्न॑ दहति वन्हिवत् II >> Verse 63
<< parokShaM brahma vij~nAnaM shAbdaM deshikapUrvakaM I
buddhipUrvakRRitaM pApaM kRRitsnaM dahati vanhivat II >>
In this verse, Swami Vidyaranya mentions that the phala for parOksha jnAna
(jnAna with pratibandha) is burning out, like fire, of all pApa gained
through knowingly performed actions.
<< अपरोक्षात्मविज्ञानं शाब्दं देशिकपूर्वकं I
संसारकारणाज्ञानतमसः चण्डभास्करः II >> Verse 64
<< aparokShAtmavij~nAnaM shAbdaM deshikapUrvakaM I
saMsArakAraNAj~nAnatamasaH chaNDabhAskaraH II >>
In this verse, Swami Vidyaranya mentions that the phala for aparOksha jnAna
(jnAna without pratibandha) is elimination of ajnAna - the cause of
samsAra, like elimination of darkness by brilliant sun.
It is clear that as per Swami Vidyaranya, the sAdhaka who has aparoksha
jnAna (as defined in the question raised in the above mentioned post) but
continues to have viparIta-jnAna , and who sheds his mortal coil at that
stage, is subject to rebirth.
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