[Advaita-l] How do you explain this?

V Subrahmanian v.subrahmanian at gmail.com
Sat Jan 19 06:00:02 EST 2019

Sada ji,

I shall re-state the four types as follows:

Drk is of four types:

1. With mAyA as upAdhi, Brahman becomes the dRk  - When we contemplate 'I
am Brahman, this whole world is a manifestation/projection of Chit, Pure
Consciousness, I have imagined this whole universe due to the avidya made
of three gunas.' [This is the second verse of Manisha Panchakam]. Here, the
'i" is nirguna brahman. This contemplation is useful for realizing the
Truth. This line is sung from the Jnani's standpoint.  I am the Drk and
everything else is drshyam.

2. With mAya as avaccheda, Ishwara is dRk.:  Here, Ishwara is the sarva
jagat saakshi. He is the witness of everything in creation. He does not
need to realize anything for he is not a sadhaka; he is admitted to be
Jnani. However, he is the sarvadaa sarva saakshi. When Kanakadasa (or any
other) said in that story 'I did not find any place where I am not being
observed' and hence I came back without eating the plantain.' it is this
Ishwara who is the sarva loka saakshi that is meant. Here, Ishwara is the
dRk and the entire creation is drshyam.

3. With avidya as upAdhi (I assume this), kUTashtha is dRk.   Here, the
kUTastha is the antahkarana saakshi. Each jiva has this kutastha in him and
his mental transformations such as sukha, sankalpa, samshaya, etc. are
revealed to him by this kutastha. This is useful to the jiva, sadhaka, to
dissociate himself from the body-mind identification and posit himself as
the kutastha, witnessing consciousness, of his mind. Here, kutastha is
sakshi and the antahkarana is drshyam. Through the antahkaranam the entire
creation is drshyam for the jiva.

4. With avidya as avaccheda, jiva is dRk.   Here the dRk is the pramAtru.
The pramAtru, the entity who is identified with the mind, body, organs,
says, I am the doer, knower, seer, hearer, sukhi, duhkhi, samsari, etc.
 Shankara talks about him in the adhyasa bhashya. Pramatru here is the drk
and all the dehendriya vyaapaara anubhava is the drshyam.

I think this will be useful in explaining the four types consistently.  It
is only your further probing that prompted me to think and write the above.


All this four-fold difference is only aupAdhika and not real.


More information about the Advaita-l mailing list