[Advaita-l] Topic for Discussion: What is Nirvikalpaka Samaadhi?

kuntimaddi sadananda kuntimaddisada at yahoo.com
Wed Mar 9 21:12:22 CST 2016

Sunilji - PraNAms

Chitta - word was used in many ways - in Vedanta - it is used in the sense of subtle body - that includes four components, mind, intellect, memory and ahankaara. It is used only to designate the memory part also. Sometime mind is used to designate all the four. All are thought process and names change depending on the function. Tatva bodha or Vivikachudmani describes these - in nirvaana shatakam - mano buddhi ahankaara chittaani naaham...

All thoughts are inert. Hence inert thing cannot be a jeeva. Being a subtle material, the pure sat chit ananda can get reflected by the subtle body- called chidaabaasa and by way of reflection of consciousness the subtle body also becomes conscious entity just as moon by reflection of sunlight becomes a luminous body. Reflection of consciousness is expression of life itself and jiiva notion arises due to not knowing that I am is the original consciousness.

Chitta vRitti - when we add vRitti - now we are referring to not just memory but to the total mind - as the absence of vRitti - VRitti as discussed in the article - idam vRitti and aham vRtti, etc for external perceptions. For internal perceptions such as happy thought or angry or emotional thoughts there is no indriya input. 

Hari Om!

On Wed, 3/9/16, Sunil Bhattacharjya via Advaita-l <advaita-l at lists.advaita-vedanta.org> wrote:

 Subject: Re: [Advaita-l] Topic for Discussion: What is Nirvikalpaka Samaadhi?
 To: "adviata-l" <advaita-l at lists.advaita-vedanta.org>, "kuntimaddi sadananda" <kuntimaddisada at yahoo.com>
 Date: Wednesday, March 9, 2016, 7:18 PM
 Dear Sadaji,
 To my understanding the "Chitta" is "Mind", "Ego" and
 "Intellec"t together along with the "Impressions or Memory".
 and some puranas have called the Chitta itself as the Jeeva.
 The aim of "Cittavritti-nirodha" in yoga is to control the
 fluctuations in the Chitta and that finally comes to the
 thought-control in the mind. When the mind is still and
 there are no thought appearing in the mind, that  helps
 the Chittaa to disconnect from the Prakrti.or Maya and one
 becomes "Jivanmukta". Eventually with the leaving of the
 five Koshas, the "Videhamukti" is achieved and there is
 one-ness with Brahman. 
 Sunil K. Bhattacharjya
 On Wed, 3/9/16, kuntimaddi sadananda via Advaita-l <advaita-l at lists.advaita-vedanta.org>
  Subject: [Advaita-l] Topic for Discussion: What is
 Nirvikalpaka Samaadhi?
  To: "adviata-l" <advaita-l at lists.advaita-vedanta.org>
  Date: Wednesday, March 9, 2016, 7:57 AM
  PraNAms to all
  I posed this question in both lists. There were few who
  discussed on this topic. I thank all of them who
  participated in the discussion. I am presenting below my
  understanding for whatever it is worth.
  I am providing below my understanding. Some of these
  are discussed exhaustively by Shree Vidyaranya swami in
  Panchadashi – which we are doing now. We are doing now
  10th Chapter. Just of info- The talks on the Chapters
  covered so far are available on Yu-tube under Acharya
  Is Self-realization involves objectless-awareness as some
  The objectless awareness is nothing but pure sat chit
  ananda. It is always there - with the objects at the very
  substantive and without the objects as Brahman. It is
  paaramaarthika satyam. na vaaak gacchati na manaH - no
  speech can go there nor the mind - says the scripture.
  vaacho nivartante apraapya manasaa saha. For pure Brahman
  there is no need of self-realization too, as it is one
  without a second. Jnaanam and ajnaanam etc., are all at
  vyaavhaarika level only. Hence self-realization cannot be
  object-less awareness, and one cannot reach there and one
  need not reach there too, since it is ever present and
  Self-realization is by the mind only - Mind has to
  or re-cognize that the existence that supports the mind or
  the consciousness that enlivens the mind is due to the
  self that I am; since I say I am existent-conscious entity
  – I am, in fact, a self-existent and self-conscious
   Thoughts or vRittis that arise my mind are also
 objects of
  my awareness. As every thought (either due to external
  perceptions or internal perceptions) arises in the mind -
  - this is a pot-, or - this is chair,  simultaneously
  or spontaneously subject thought - I am - as knower arises
  in the mind- Bhagavan Ramana calls this as aham vRitti
  centered on the knower, in contrast to idam vRitti
  in objective-thought. 
  Aham vRitit is not objective thought but the - knower
  thought, as -I know this is a pot - I know this is a
  etc. Thus we have object-thought of idam vRitti as in,
  is a pot or this is a chair, etc.; and along with this,
  spontaneously a knower thought - I am the knower that this
  is a pot, etc ., arises. This aham vRitti is not objective
  thought, but subject-or knower vRitti, which also owns the
  knowledge as in - I am the knower of this thought. 
  Shifting the mind from the object thought to the subject
  vRitti is object-less awareness. It is not elimination of
  the thoughts but shifting the mind to the knowing
  because of which every objective thought is known. I am
  neither known or unknown but the very knowing principle of
  both known and unknown says kena up. To recognize and
  I am that - without the objective thoughts or more
  in spite of objective thoughts - requires a very
  discriminative mind or mind with viveka.  While
  remaining within the upaadhi recognizing I am is the pure
  existence-consciousness that enlivens the upAdhi- it is
  called upahita chaitanya. To be able to shift my mind
  without getting lost in the objective thoughts that floods
  the mind, meditation on the single thought – as in japa-
  would help or even the meditation on the thought – aham
  brahmaasmi – once one has understood the truth –
  sayam, jagan mithyaa and aham brahma eva na aparaH though
  Vedanta shravana and manana. 
  A similar analogy is looking at the moon (which is
  the presiding deity of the mind) and the moonlight and
  that I am actually seeing the sunlight that is illumining
  the moon. I cannot really see the sunlight directly. I
  the moon to RECOGNIZE the presence of sunlight. What I see
  is only moon-light. I have to use viveka to shift my
  attention from the moon light to that because of moon has
  the light.  There is sunlight outside the moon too but
  I cannot recognize that since there is no object to
  that light. Hence I need the reflecting object and from
  reflection recognize cognitively the original light.
  Similarly I cannot see the objectless awareness but I have
  to recognize I am in the every objective awareness - Hence
  Kenopanishad says- pratibhoda viditam matam - It is
  in every thought or experience as the knower or
  which has to be conscious-existent entity since
  or unconscious entity cannot have any experience. 
  The thought-less mind happens normally in deep-sleep
  state.  In the deep-sleep state there is akhanda
  ajnaana vRitti or constant unbroken thought of ignorance
  subject-object duality, as the mind is folded. Deep sleep
  state is not meditation since mind is folded and cannot
  abide in the knowledge of aham brahmaasmi. 
  Patanjali yoga talks about the chitta vRitti nirodha –
  shutting of all the thoughts – essentially a thoughtless
  mind or empty mind. As Swami Dayanandaji puts it – an
  ignorant thought full mind has now become ignorant
  thoughtless mind. The ignorance remains. When the mind
  awakens with thoughts you are back to square one and
  Patanjali yoga advocates dvaita only and not advaita.
  no knowledge of advaita occurs in that thoughtless mind. 
  Nirvikalpaka samaadhi:
  Nirvikalpaka samaadhi is described for the one who has
  studied Vedanta under a sampradaaya teacher and the mind
  grasped truth – aham brahmaasmi. Hence it is not a
  substitute for the knowledge since muula avidya or
  of the self can only by knowledge of the self – via
  Vedanta pramaana. Even after gaining the knowledge, if
  a mind is not able to abide in that knowledge of aham
  brahmaasmi due to remnant raaga-dweshaas, one can meditate
  on the knowledge – aham brahmaasmi as the single thought
  without any other thoughts in the mind. That is
  samAdhI with the knowledge of aham brahamsmi single
  Thus one slowly eliminates the remnant raaga dweshas and
  such a person even if he comes out of that meditation, the
  knowledge remains with him – now even with the thoughts
  – since he has understood that He is pure sat chit
  and presence or absence of thoughts do not affect him
  they are mithyaa. 
  Hence what is needed is a) clear understanding of the
  – brahma satyam, jagan mithyaa and aham brahmaasmi –
  that involves a) paroksha jnaanam of the jagat and Iswara
  and b) aparoksha jnanam via mahaavaakya vichaara. –
  are no short cuts here. Nidhidhyaasana is required for
  madhyama adhikaari who is not able to abide in the
  – aham brahmaasmi. For him, constant enquiry is the best
  approach, so that the mind does not get entangled with the
  day to day life in vyavahaara, which he cannot but do, as
  long as BMI is there. If he cannot enquire or do vichaara
  – then one can do meditation on aham brahmaasmi with the
  background knowledge via mahaavaakyaas.  
  If absence of thoughts is required for self-realization,
  then we are giving more reality to the thoughts or as much
  reality to the thoughts as the self. Ontologically Self or
  Brahman is of higher order of reality and thoughts cannot
  replace Brahman or the self for me to remove the thoughts
  recognize the self. What is required is detachment of the
  mind from the thoughts (as they involve ahankaara and
  mamakaara due to raaga and dweshas – I-ness and my-ness
  due to likes and dislikes) so that mind can shift its
  attention to aham vRitti from idam vRitti.  
  Some can even experience a thought-less state or
  nirvikalpaka samAdhI. However without Vedanta knowledge
  an experience is neither needed nor necessary. What is
  required is clear understand of the truth – Brahma
  jagan mithyaa, aham brahmaasmi – knowledge – though
  Vedanta mahaavaakya vichaara, via shravana and manana.
  Meditation or even nirvikalpaka samAdhI is not a pramaana
  means of knowledge – one can have experience but such an
  experience is not needed for self-knowledge. Meditation or
  continuous enquiry is required for the mind to abide in
  knowledge gained via shravana and manana – that is
  listening to the sampradaaya teacher on Vedanta for
  prolonged length of time until the knowledge is crytal
  and doubt-free. Even after gaining the knowledge, one is
  unable abide in the knowledge for them nidhidhyaasana
  including nirvikalpaka samadhi is recommended. The later
  ones are not alternatives to Vedanta shravana and manana. 
  Hope this helps. 
  I want to thank all those who presented their view.
  Hari Om!
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