[Advaita-l] About Satyakama

Venkatesh Murthy (वेङ्कटेशः सीतारामार्यपुत्रः) vmurthy36 at gmail.com
Mon Jun 27 06:20:41 CDT 2016

 2016-06-27 15:27 GMT+05:30 V Subrahmanian via Advaita-l
<advaita-l at lists.advaita-vedanta.org>:
> 2016-06-27 9:43 GMT+05:30 Aurobind Padiyath via Advaita-l <
> advaita-l at lists.advaita-vedanta.org>:
>> Few places where this has been done are:
>> 1. Jabala's statement of " as a young maiden,  I had served many (बह्वहं
>> चरन्तीत्यादि )  as a Bahucharini, she had entertained many." Is the
>> Upanishad wordings.
In very ancient times there was no marriage like we have now with
husband and wife living together permanently. In Mahabharata itself we
hear women in very ancient times roaming wherever they pleased and
enjoying. This was allowed by practices of old Rishis even.

(Sambhava Parva continued)
"Vaisampayana said, 'Thus addressed by his loving wife, king Pandu,
well-acquainted with all rules of morality, replied in these words of
virtuous import, 'O Kunti, what thou hast said is quite true. Vyushitaswa
of old did even as thou hast said. Indeed he was equal unto the
celestials themselves. But I shall now tell thee about the practices of
old indicated by illustrious Rishis, fully acquainted with every rule of
morality. O thou of handsome face and sweet smiles, women formerly were
not immured within houses and dependent on husbands and other relatives.
They used to go about freely, enjoying themselves as best as they liked.
O thou of excellent qualities, they did not then adhere to their husbands
faithfully, and yet, O handsome one, they were not regarded sinful, for
that was the sanctioned usage of the times. That very usage is followed
to this day by birds and beasts without any (exhibition of) jealousy.
That practice, sanctioned by precedent, is applauded by great Rishis. O
thou of taper thighs, the practice is yet regarded with respect amongst
the Northern Kurus. Indeed, that usage, so lenient to women, hath the
sanction of antiquity. The present practice, however (of women's being
confined to one husband for life) hath been established but lately. I
shall tell thee in detail who established it and why.
"It hath been heard by us that there was a great Rishi of the name of
Uddalaka, who had a son named Swetaketu who also was an ascetic of merit.
O thou of eyes like lotus-petals, the present virtuous practice hath been
established by that Swetaketu from anger. Hear thou the reason. One day,
in the presence of Swetaketu's father a Brahmana came and catching
Swetaketu's mother by the hand, told her, 'Let us go.' Beholding his
mother seized by the hand and taken away apparently by force, the son was
greatly moved by wrath. Seeing his son indignant, Uddalaka addressed him
and said, 'Be not angry. O son! This is the practice sanctioned by
antiquity. The women of all orders in this world are free, O son; men in
this matter, as regards their respective orders, act as kine.' The
Rishi's son, Swetaketu, however, disapproved of the usage and established
in the world the present practice as regards men and women. It hath been
heard by us, O thou of great virtue, that the existing practice dates
from that period among human beings but not among beings of other
classes. Accordingly, since the establishment of the present usage, it is
sinful for women not to adhere to their husbands. Women transgressing the
limits assigned by the Rishi became guilty of slaying the embryo. And,
men, too, viol ting a chaste and loving wife who hath from her maidenhood
observed the vow of purity, became guilty of the same sin. The woman also
who, being commanded by her husband to raise offspring, refuses to do his
bidding, becometh equally sinful.
"Thus, O timid one, was the existing usage established of old by
Swetaketu, the son of Uddalaka, in defiance of antiquity.

> Is the word 'बह्वहम्’ a sandhi or a samāsa? It is the former: बहु + अहम्.
> The word 'bahu' is connected to 'charantī.' There is nothing in the mantras
> to suggest the object for the word 'charanti' meaning: 'what chranti'? It
> is mischievous to give the answer: bahu puruṣān aham charantī. Shankara,
> taking the the other word 'paricharyā', gives the summed up meaning,
> keeping in mind the ideal householder's practices.
> We have a somewhat parallel to the case of Jābālā in the the Brhadaranyaka
> upanishad 4.1.1:
> अथ ह याज्ञवल्क्यस्य द्वे भार्ये बभूवतुर्मैत्रेयी च कात्यायनी च तयोर्ह
> मैत्रेयी ब्रह्मवादिनी बभूव स्त्रीप्रज्ञैव तर्हि कात्यायन्यथ ह
> याज्ञवल्क्योऽन्यद्वृत्तमुपाकरिष्यन् ॥ १ ॥
> The mantra says: Yajnavalkya had two wives: Maitreyi and Kātyāyanī of whom
> the latter was 'strīprajnā' in contrast to her co-wife who was a
> 'brahmavādinī'.  Shankara comments on this word:
> स्त्रीप्रज्ञा- स्त्रियां या उचिता सा स्त्रीप्रज्ञा — सैव यस्याः प्रज्ञा
> *गृहप्रयोजनान्वेषणालक्षणा,* सा स्त्रीप्रज्ञैव तर्हि तस्मिन्काले आसीत्
> कात्यायनी ।  She was of the type of one who is concerned with knowing about
> the household.
> It is quite reasonable that Jābālā was unaware of the gotra, of her
> husband. From the fact that the boy remained without upanayana Shankara
> infers that his father must have died early.
> In fact Kunti, as a young girl, served dutifully a sage who had camped in
> her house.  Pleased by her services, she was given a boon to have a child
> through whichever devatā she chose.   Shankara shows that Jabala was
> engrossed in the household work like serving the guests, etc. and was not
> concerned in knowing the gotra etc.
> regards
> vs
>> ४,४.१
>> सत्यकामो ह जाबालो जबालां मातरमामन्त्रयां चक्रे ।
>> ब्रह्मचर्यं भवति विवत्स्यामि किंगोत्रो न्वहमस्मीति ॥ ४,४.१ ॥
>> __________
>> भाष्य ४,४.१ सर्वं वागाद्यग्न्यादि चान्नान्नादत्वसंस्तुतं जगदेकीकृत्य षोडशधा
>> प्रविभज्य तस्मिन्ब्रह्मदृष्टिर्विधातव्येत्यारभ्यते ।
>> श्रद्धातपसोर्ब्रह्मोपासनाङ्गत्वप्रदर्शनायाऽख्यायिका ।
>> सत्यकामो ह नामतो हशब्द ऐतिह्यार्थो जबालाया अपत्यं जाबालो जबलां स्वां
>> मातरमामन्त्रयाञ्चक्र आमन्त्रितवान् ।
>> ब्रह्मचर्यं स्वाध्यायग्रहणाय हे भवति विवत्स्याम्याचार्यकुले, किङ्गोत्रोऽहं
>> किमस्य मम गोत्रं सोऽहं न्वहमस्मीति ॥१ ॥
>> ४,४.२
>> सा हैनमुवाच ।
>> नाहमेतद्वेद तात यद्गोत्रस्त्वमसि ।
>> बह्वहं चरन्ती परिचारिणी यौवने त्वामलभे ।
>> साहमेतन्न वेद यद्गोत्रस्त्वमसि ।
>> जबाला तु नामाहमस्मि ।
>> सत्यकामो नाम त्वमसि ।
>> स सत्यकाम एव जाबालो ब्रुवीथा इति ॥ ४,४.२ ॥
>> __________
>> भाष्य ४,४.२ एवं पृष्टा जबाला सा हैनं पुत्रमुवाचनाहमेतत्तव गोत्रं वेद हे तात
>> यद्गोत्रस्त्वमसि ।
>> कस्मान्न वेत्सीत्युक्ताऽहबहु भर्तृगृहे परिचर्याजातमतिथ्यभ्यागतादि चरन्त्यहं
>> परिचारिणी परिचरन्तीति परिचरणशीलैवाहं परिचरणचित्ततया गोत्रादिस्मरणे मम मनो
>> नाभूत् ।
>> यौवने च तत्काले त्वामलभे लब्धवत्यस्मि ।
>> तदैव ते पितोपरतः ।
>> अतोऽनाथाहं साहमेतन्न वेद यद्गोत्रस्त्वमसि ।
>> जबाला तु नामाहमस्मि सत्यकामो नाम त्वमसि स त्वं सत्यकाम एवाहं
>> जाबालोऽस्मीत्याचार्याय ब्रुवीथाः यद्याचार्येण पृष्ट इत्यभिप्रायः ॥२ ॥
>> ४,४.३, ४
>> स ह हारिद्रुमतं गौतममेत्योवाच ।
>> ब्रह्मचर्यं भगवति वत्स्यामि ।
>> उपेयां भगवन्तमिति ॥ ४,४.३ ॥
>> तं होवाच किंगोत्रो नु सोम्यासीति ।
>> स होवाच ।
>> नाहमेतद्वेद भो यद्गोत्रोऽहमस्मि ।
>> अपृच्छं मातरम् ।
>> सा मा प्रत्यब्रवीद्बह्वहं चरन्ती परिचरिणी यौवने त्वामलभे ।
>> साहमेतन्न वेद यद्गोत्रस्त्वमसि ।
>> जबाला तु नामाहमस्मि ।
>> सत्यकामो नाम त्वमसीति ।
>> सोऽहं सत्यकामो जाबालोऽस्मि भो इति ॥ ४,४.४ ॥
>> __________
>> भाष्य ४,४.४ स ह सत्यकामो हारिद्रुमतं हरिद्रुमतोऽपत्यं हारिद्रुमतं गौतमं
>> गोत्रत एत्य गत्वोवाच ब्रह्मचर्यं भगवति पूजावति त्वयि वत्स्याम्यत
>> उपेयामुपगच्छेयं शिष्यतया भगवन्तमित्युक्तवन्तं तं होवाच गौतमः ।
>> किङ्गोत्रो नु सोम्यासीति विज्ञातकुलगोत्रः शिष्य उपनेतव्य इति पृष्टः
>> प्रत्याह सत्यकामः ।
>> स होवाच नाहमेतद्वेद भो यद्गोत्रोऽहमस्मि ।
>> किं त्वपृच्छं पृष्टवानस्मि मातरम् ।
>> सा मया पृष्टा मां प्रत्यब्रवीन्माता ।
>> बह्वहं चरन्तीत्यादि पूर्ववत् ।
>> तस्या अहं वचः स्मरामि सोऽहं सत्यकामो जाबालोऽस्मि भो इति ॥३ ।। , ।। ४ ॥
>> From the above how can you say
>> नाहमेतद्वेद तात यद्गोत्रस्त्वमसि ।
>> बह्वहं चरन्ती परिचारिणी यौवने त्वामलभे ।
>> साहमेतन्न वेद यद्गोत्रस्त्वमसि ।
>> Is the same as
>> कस्मान्न वेत्सीत्युक्ताऽहबहु भर्तृगृहे परिचर्याजातमतिथ्यभ्यागतादि चरन्त्यहं
>> परिचारिणी परिचरन्तीति परिचरणशीलैवाहं परिचरणचित्ततया गोत्रादिस्मरणे मम मनो
>> नाभूत् ।
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