[Advaita-l] Theory of Language: Mimamsa, Advaita and Vyakarana 3 of 3
Siva Senani Nori
sivasenani at yahoo.com
Sun Dec 13 12:48:30 CST 2015
From: Siva Senani Nori via Advaita-l <advaita-l at lists.advaita-vedanta.org
. . . I . . . follow it up in the next email with translation of two or three kArikAs from jAtisamuddeSa and maybe all of DravysamuddeSa to show how close the descriptions are.
Here are the promised translations. First from JAtisamuddeSa:
"संबन्धिभेदात्सत्तैव भिद्यमाना गवादिषु ।
जातिरित्युच्यते तस्यां सर्वे शब्दा व्यवस्थिताः॥३.१.३३॥"
Sattā (=Existence = महासत्ता, परब्रह्म) itself is being divided dueto the difference in the related [limiting adjuncts] into cow etc. and is beingcalled as jāti. All the words are within that Sattā.
"तां प्रातिपदिकार्थं च धात्वर्थं च प्रचक्षते ।
सा नित्या सा महानात्मा तामाहुस्त्वतलादयः॥ ३.१.३४॥"
That [Sattā]is called the meaning of a prātipadika and dhātu. That is eternal. That is theGreat Ātman; and That is what is expressed by the affixes tva, tal etc.
"आश्रयः स्वात्ममात्रा वा भावा वा व्यतिरेकिणः ।
स्वशक्तयो वा सत्ताया भेददर्शनहेतवः ॥ ३.१.४० ॥"
The reasonfor the perceiving the multiplicity of sattā (i.e. Brahman) are a) āśrayas =the bases for universals, that is the individuals; b) svātmamātras = imaginaryparts of its own self such as cowness etc. (for everything is Brahman limitedby an adjunct); c) the apparently differentiated entities (differentiated dueto time, space, sense organs etc); or d) its own capacities.
Now, from DravyasamuddeSa:
आत्मा वस्तु स्वभावश्च शरीरं तत्त्वमित्यपि ।
द्रव्यमित्यस्य पर्यायास्तच्च नित्यमिति स्मृतम्॥१॥
The wordsĀtmā, Vastu, Svabhāvaḥ, Śarīram and Tattvam (used in other Systems) are allsynonyms for Dravya, which is said to be eternal.
सत्यं वस्तु तदाकारैरसत्यैरवधार्यते ।
असत्योपाधिभिः शब्दैः सत्यमेवाभिधीयते ॥२॥
The RealEntity, i.e. Brahman, is perceived by the unreal ones which have a similarform. Truth (Brahman) alone is being denoted by Śabdas which have unrealadjuncts.
न तत्त्वातत्त्वयोर्भेद इति वृद्धेभ्य आगमः ।
अतत्त्वमिति मन्यन्ते तत्त्वमेवाविचारितम् ॥७ ॥
Thetradition received from elders is that there is no difference between Tattvaand Atattva; the eternal Tattva (Brahman) itself is thought of as Atattva dueto improper consideration.
विकल्परूपं भजते तत्त्वमेवाविकल्पितम्।
न चात्र कालभेदोऽस्ति कालभेदश्च गृह्यते ॥८॥
Theundifferentiated Tattva (Brahman) itself obtains differentiation. There is nodifference based on time, in It (Tattva, i.e. Brahman); and [yet], differencebased on time is cognised.
यथा विषयधर्माणां ज्ञानेऽत्यन्तमसम्भवः ।
तदात्मेव च तत्सिद्धमत्यन्तमतदात्मकम् ॥९॥
Just like itis impossible for the attributes of an object [being completely different fromJñāna, cognition] to take the form of cognition, and yet the one which iscompletely different from it (Jñāna), appears as if in its form.
तथा विकाररूपाणां तत्त्वेऽत्यन्तमसम्भवः ।
तदात्मेव च तत्तत्त्वमत्यम्न्तमतदात्मकम् ॥१०॥
Similarly,the forms of modifications cannot at all belong to Tattva, yet that Tattva,which is completely different from limiting adjuncts like forms, appears as ifit has the form of those limiting adjuncts.
"सत्यमाकृतिसंहारे यदन्ते व्यवतिष्ठते ।
तन्नित्यं शब्दवाच्यं तच्छब्दात्तत्त्वं न भिद्यते॥११॥"
That whichremains when all forms are withdrawn is the Real (Brahman), which is eternal,which is the denoted by Śabda and which is non-different from the nature ofŚabda.
न तदस्ति न तन्नास्ति न तदेकं न तत्पृथक्।
न संसृष्टं विभक्तं वा विकृतं न च नान्यथा ॥१२॥
It (Brahman)neither exists, nor does it not exist; It is neither One, nor is it different;It is neither co-mingled, nor in a separated state; neither is it modified, noris it other than modified.
तन्नास्ति विद्यते तच्च तदेकं तत्पृथक्पृथक्।
संसृष्टं च विभक्तं च विकृतं तत्तदन्यथा ॥१३॥
It (Brahman)is not and yet, it is known; It is One and yet, many; It is co-mingled, andyet, in separate forms; It is a modification and yet, unmodified.
तस्य शब्दार्थसम्बन्धरूपमेकस्य दृश्यते ।
तद्दृश्यं दर्शनं द्रष्टा दर्शने च प्रयोजनम् ॥१४॥
Śabda, Artha(Meaning) and Śabdārthasambandha (the relation between the two) are being seenas the forms of the That (Brahman) which is One. That (Brahman) [itself] is theDṛśya (seen), Darśana (the act of seeing), Draṣṭā (the agent of seeing) and thepurpose of seeing.
विकारापगमे सत्यं सुवर्णं कुण्डले यथा ।
विकारापगमे सत्यां तथाहुः प्रकृतिं पराम् ॥१५॥
Just as goldis the truth that remains in ear-ring etc., when all modifications are removed;in a similar way, when all modifications are removed that Truth which remainsis said to the Parā Prakṛti.
वाच्या सा सर्वशब्दानां शब्दाश्च न पृथक्ततः।
अपृथक्त्वे च सम्बन्धस्तयोर्नानात्मनोरिव॥१६॥
That (ParāPrakṛti) is the denotation of all Śabdas; Śabdas themselves are not differentfrom That (Brahman). Though those two (Śabda and Dravya, i.e. Brahman) arenon-different, it appears as if their relation is like the relation betweenthose which are not identical with each other.
आत्मा परः प्रियो द्वेष्यो वक्ता वाच्यं प्रयोजनम्।
विरुद्धानि यथैकस्य स्वप्ने रूपाणि चेतसः॥१७॥
Just likethe one consciousness takes mutually opposed forms of self and other; dear andhated; speaker and spoken; and purpose;
अजन्मनि तथा नित्ये पौर्वापर्यविवर्जिते।
तत्त्वे जन्मादिरूपत्वं विरुद्धमुपलभ्यते ॥१८॥
in a similarway, opposite forms of birth etc. obtain in the Tattva (Brahman) which iswithout birth, Eternal, and devoid of prior and posterior.
RegardsN. Siva Senani
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