[Advaita-l] definition and criteria of Truth

subhanu saxena subhanu at hotmail.com
Sat Jul 31 18:49:32 CDT 2010

Guy Werlings wrote:


So what I am looking for is one line in Itrans for the definition of Truth with its anvaya, and three lines for the criteria of Truth, as they are three in number as far as I remember from my very first contact with vEdAnta 50 years ago.

But of course further explanations and clarifications are also most welcome.

Namaste Guy


You may also refer to BUB 5.4.1, 5.5.1 where we see the analysis of the 3 syllables "sa", "ti", "yam". The link to the Itrans text is here http://www.sub.uni-goettingen.de/ebene_1/fiindolo/gretil/1_sanskr/1_veda/4_upa/brupsb5u.htm


We have also Suresvara's vartika on the bhashyam as follows:


tasyāpi brahmaṇo nāama tryakṣaram satyam ucyate ।

prathamottame tvamritam akṣare sasvartvatah ॥ [BUBV 5.5.12]


So also the name of Brahman is declared to be the 3 letter word satyam

The first and third letters of the two are immortal as a result of having a vowel


nirachkam madhyato mrtiyurnirjīvam dehavatsthitam ।

bhūyo’mritena tadgrastam mritam chāpi  svato yatah ॥ [BUBV 5.5.13]
Between the 2 letters is the letter “t” , with no vowel. That is mrityu and has remained a lifeless body (since it is considered “dead” without any vowel) . Though dead in itself it is devoured /encircled by the immortal pair (sa and yam)
ityevam paryupāsīno  nāmābhijno narah sadā।
satyabhūyam bhavedeva nainam ityādiyuktigīh ॥ [BUBV 5.5.14]
A knowledgeable man ever worshipping Brahman thus (as the only reality) and conversant with the the proper name of Brahman as satya, would himself become satya-therefore there is the statement of the reason in the words “ya enam..”

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