[Advaita-l] Some questions on 'khyAti vAda-s' - Theories of/on Error

V Subrahmanian v.subrahmanian at gmail.com
Tue Apr 13 14:01:21 CDT 2010

On Mon, Apr 12, 2010 at 9:58 AM, Siva Senani Nori <sivasenani at yahoo.com>wrote:

  We know of the shaD-darSanas but only see Vedantis around. What happened
to the followers of sA~Nkhya, yoga, nyAya, vaiSeshika and pUrvamImAmSA? Or,
the other different 'mata's as expounded in the 20+ bhAshyams to the

Namaste Senani ji,

The above excerpt from your post (on a different thread) interests me.  For
long, I have been having some questions :

We have popularly five khyAti vAda-s: Theories of error.

AtmakhyAti - YogAchAra Bauddha (VijnAnavaada)

asatkhyAti - MAdhyamika Bauddha (shUnyavAda)

akhyAti - PrAbhAkara mImAmsA

anyathAkhyAti - NyAya, Vaisheshika and BhATTa mImAmsA

and anirvachaneeya khyAti - Vedantins (Advaita)

to describe the phenomenon of error, adhyAsa.  The adhyAsa bhAshya contains
a reference to some or all of these vAda-s.

Now, what is the background behind this development of the khyAti vAda-s?
Why and when and by whom was the need felt for coming out with a definition
of the phenomenon of error?  Was it prompted by Vedantins, Advaitins?  For,
the importance of adhyAsa is fundamental in this school.  And, was the
entire set of these definitions laid down by the Vedantins?  How did a
'consensus' come about between the various schools to come together and work
out a distinct definition of error by/for each of these schools?  Were there
really the schools of nyAya, mImAmsA and sAnkhya not just as an intellectual
group of scholars proficient in these shAstra-s but 'practioners' as well
just as we see advaitins, dvaitins, etc. today?

Will you and other members present some information on these questions and
more that could be there? Although I have nothing of relevance to
contribute, these questions interest me very much.

Recently I saw in the internet about 'abhinava-anyathA khyAti' worked out by
the Dvaita school :

The Dictionary of World Philosophy of A. Pablo Lannone says:

*http://tiny.cc/u8RHG* <http://tiny.cc/u8RHG>
Abhinava-anyathaa-khyati of Dvaita Vedanta holds that the object of
erroneous belief is unreal but its substratum is real.  For example, the
belief that a stick seen in a glass of water as bent has an unreal object, a
bent stick.

With warm regards,

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