Shri Rudram 1.5

Anand Hudli anandhudli at HOTMAIL.COM
Mon Sep 14 14:54:42 CDT 1998

   || AUM namo bhagavate rudrAya  ||

 The Rishi of this Rik is either Gautama or GodhUma, the devatA
 Rudra, and the meter anushhTubh.

 The dyAna shloka of this mantra is mentioned by BhaTTa bhAskara:

 sA.ngrAmikeNa vapushhA pravirAjamAnaM dR^ipyatpuratrayatR^iNAshani-
                                                       mandahAsam.h |
 daityAndidhaxumachaleshvarachApapANiM dhyAyetpurArimamaraugha-

 One should meditate on the brilliant, warrior form of the enemy of
 tripura whose light smile is the lightning that destroys the arrogant
 tripura, who bears in His hand the Mount Meru as His bow for the
 purpose of burning the daityas, and who has mounted the chariot made
 of the multitude of gods.

 The mahAbhArata contains an account of how Shiva destroyed the three
 cities (tripura). The demon tAraka was killed by kArtikeya. The three
 sons of tAraka then performed penance and obtained a boon from BrahmA
 according to which they could move about in three castles or cities
 made of iron, silver, and gold. They could only be slain by a single
 arrow after a period of a thousand years. Armed with this boon, the
 demons harassed the gods and good people. The gods approached Shiva
 and begged Him to annihilate these arrogant demons. Shiva then
 acquired half the strength of all gods and came to be called
 mahAdeva, the great God. He made ViShNu the fiery arrow  which He
 shot and completely burned up the three cities and the demons. The
 three cities are interpreted as the three bodies - the causal body
 (kAraNa sharIra), the subtle body ( sUkshhma sharIra, and the gross
 body (sthUla sharIra). Shiva destroys these three bodies that
 represent ignorance.

 shivena vachasA tvA girishAchchhA vadAmasi |
 yathA naH sarvamijjagadayakshhmaM sumanA asat.h ||

 (Shri Rudram: anuvAka 1, Rik 5)

 shivena vachasA - with auspicious words
 tvA - You
 girisha - O Resident of the (KailAsa) Mountain
 achchha - in order to obtain
 vadAmasi - we pray
 yathA - in which manner
 naH - our
 sarvamid.h jagat.h - this whole world of man and animals, the
 ayakshhmam.h - free from ills
 sumanA - filled with cheerfulness and benevolence
 asat.h - may it become

 O Girisha (the Resident of the Mountain KailAsa)! In order to attain
 You we pray with auspicious words. In which manner the whole world of
 people, animals, (and other) movables, may become free from disease
 and filled with cheerfulness and benevolence, (make it so).

 Simple Sanskrit Rendering
  he girisha! tvAM prAptuM maN^galena vachanena vayaM stumaH |
  yathA asmAkaM sarvaM jagat.h rogarahitaM saumanasaM bhavati tathA

  O Girisha, (the Resident of the Mountain)! In order to attain You we
  praise You with auspicious words. Make our whole world  free from
  ills and full of cheerfulness and benevolence.

 sAyaNAchArya-bhAshhyam.h (Commentary of sAyaNAchArya)

  girau kailAse shete tishhThatIti girisho he girisha tvAmachcha
  prAptuM shivena maN^galena stutirUpeNa vachasA vadAmasi vayaM
  prArthayAmahe | yathA yena prakAreNa no.asmadIyaM sarvamijjagat.h |
  ichchhabdo.avadhAraNe yathA sarvamapi manushhyapashvAdikaM
  jaN^gamajAtamayaxmaM rogarahitaM sumanA asatsaumanasyopetaM bhavati
  tathA kuru |

  Girisha is one who resides in the Mountain KailAsa. O Girisha! In
  order  to attain You we pray with auspicious words in the form of a
  hymn of praise. Make this whole world of ours (id.h is understood
  as) consisting of all people and animals, the movables, free from
  disease and endowed with cheerfulness and benevolence.

  According to "achchhAbherAptumiti" of YAskAchArya's nirukta, the
  word "achchha(A)" appearing in the Shruti has the meaning of
  "Aptum.h", to attain.

 Notes based on the commentary of bhaTTa bhAskara:

 1) shivena vachasA is interpreted as follows:

   tvadIyaguNasaMkIrtanaparatayA kalyANakareNa tava prItikareNa vA
   stotralaxaNena vachanena ...

   By words that indicate a hymn, are engaged in glorifying Your
   qualities, and bestow auspiciousness or loving devotion to You.

 2) ashivena hi vachanena devaH krudhyet.h | The God may become
    angry by (using) inauspicious words (in His praise).

    BhaTTa BhAskara has quoted from the R^ig Vedic Rudra sUkta
    (sometimes also called the R^ig Vedic Rudram) in support of this

    mA tvA rudra chukrudhAmA namobhirmA dushhTutI vR^ishhabha
    mA sahUtI |
    unno vIrAn.h arpaya bheshhajebhirbhishhaktamaM tvA bhishhajAM
    shR^iNomi ||

    O Rudra! Let us not make You angry by (incorrect) obeisances or
    by faulty praises or by invoking You with (other lesser) gods.
    Along with Your remedies (medicines) kindly grant us heroic
    (sons), (since) we hear that You are the foremost among
    physicians, O Bestower of gifts!

                  || AUM namo bhagavate rudrAya  ||


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On 12 September, Vidyashankar wrote:

> Has the source of this quote been identified? In another work,
> SankarAcArya uses the word sampradAyavit to refer to his paramaguru,
> gauDapAda. However, I can't recollect that the adhyAropApavAdAbhyAm
> nishprapancham prapanchyate half verse occurs in the gauDapAda
> kArikAs. If
> the source of this quote is identified, it may provide another small
> clue
> to vedAnta in pre-Sankaran times.
> Vidyasankar
I have not seen anywhere a reference to the source of this quote,
although Vidyashankar is right in saying that it is not traceable to
gauDapAda.  From what we know, it seems clear that this was an ancient
verse that was more widely known. For example, MaNdana Mishra says in
his writings "tathA aparaihi 'adhyAropApavAdAbhyAm nishprapancham
prapanchyate' ", meaning "and so say others 'that which etc etc".

As always, Vidyashankar makes an important and pertinent point. There is
a school of thought prevailing that Shankara somehow "invented" his
system of Vedanta.  For those who are familiar with Shankara's
Bhashya's, they will find this hard to believe.  The reasons for
refuting this view can be summarised as follows:

        1) As Vidyashankar has said above, Shankara repeatedly refers to
gauDapAda as "one conversant with the tradition" in statements such as
"tathA cha sampradAyavido vadanti" (B S Bh1-4-14) and "atroktam
sampradAyavidhbhihi AchAraihi (B S BS 2-1-9), implying that gauDapAda
was himself part of a long line following a traditional teaching

        2) gauDapAda himself refers to the tradition and teachers before
him in his kArikA's eg "vedAnteshu vichakshanaihi" (GK 2-31), and
"munibhihi vedapAragaihi" (GK 2-35)

        3) Shankara again and again refers to a traditional method of
teaching that existed well before him. Witness his benedictory Slokas at
the start of Taittiriya and BrihadAraNyaka Bhashya's "Yairime gurubhihi
purvam..etc" and "Namo brahmAdibhyo...etc".  Also his cutting comments
in Gita Bhashyam where , at 13-2 at 18-50 here refutes points of view by
stating that the propounders of such views had not received teaching
according to the traditional method

        4) Actual quotations of verses (such as the adhyAropa one) and
names belonging to his tradition. As but one example, witness his quote
of 3 Sloka's at the end of his commentary on the 4th sutra of Brahma
Sutra which he begins with "api cha Ahuhu" "so say (the knowers of the
tradition). These 3 Sloka's (beginning with gauNamithAtmano'satwe...etc)
encapsulate much of Shankara's teachings yet they come from a time
before him.  These Sloka's are generally attributed to a Sundara pANdya,
but this is by no means proven.  I fear that for these types of
references, we shall never know who really composed them, save for the
fact that they came from Shankara's tradition before him.

        It should be clear from the above that Shankara comes from and
appeals to an ancient tradition that existed well before him.  His works
seem to have eclipsed, however, any written records of the sages that
preceded him save of gauDapAda's kArikA's and references in his
bhAshyas.  As with the great library of Alexandria, we will be always
left to wonder what really existed before, and what has been lost for
subsequent generations.



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