Vaidya N. Sundaram sundaram at ECN.PURDUE.EDU
Wed Jul 29 14:27:44 CDT 1998

19, 19 1/2)

 aadau nityaanityavastuvivekaH parigaNyate .
 ihaamutraphalabhogaviraagastadanantaram.h .
 shamaadishhaT.hkasampattirmumukshutvamiti sphuTam.h

 First discrimination between the everlasting and the transient is
mentioned. After that comes detachment from the enjoyment of fruits (of
karmas) here (on earth) and elsewhere (in heaven). then it is clear (that
following this are ) possession of the six virtues commencing with sama
and (lastly comes) the desire for release.

 Each of these virtues after viveka follows from its preceding one in
consecution. What precedes is the ground of what succeeds. It is only he
who knows, 'this is eternal; this is transient' that will with draw his
mind from what is transient. Because vai raagya cannot be secured in the
absence of discrimination between the eternal and the transient, viveka is
said to be the cause of vairaagya.

 It is only a person who has vairaagya that can acquire saanti (mind
control) and daanti (sense control) which arise from controlling
respectively the internal and external organs. Moreover, daanti external
sense control (bahirindriyanirodha) can be effec ted only when there is
control of the mind (the antarindriya or antahkarana); for if they have no
connection with the mind, the sense organs cannot execute anything. To the
question, if upon achieving sama, dama is automatically effected, why
should it be included specifically among the saadhanas, it is replied that
as stated in the Gitaa: indriyaani pramaathIni haranti prasabham manah:
"the sense organs going astray forcefully draw the mind", if the external
organs are not held in check, mind control cannot be perfectly
 samnyaasa signified by uparati (withdrawal) will mark only him who has
acquired mastery over his internal and external organs. Such a samnyaasin
alone can have titiksaa which is the ability to endure without a concern
the dualities like cold and heat. As his mind will not be detracted by
anything outside of him, he alone can be said to have samaadhi or
concentration whihc is characterised by unswerving establishment in the
thought of Brahman. In one thus qualified alone will arise sraddhA or
faith in the teaching of the guru and of Vedanta that what is real is
Brahman and that the jagat (the material world) is mithyaa. Thus it is
clear that in the series beginning with sama, what succeeds depends on
what precedes. A person so perfectly qualifed as thus will not desire
anything except release. He does not brook any delay respecting it. He is
characterised by superlatively earnest desire for liberation
(tIvramumuksutva). hence the reference to 'in the beginning nityA nitya

 hence it becomse clear that as viveka is mentioned before vairaagya,
viveka or discrimination is the cause for vairaagya.

                      Vaidya N. Sundaram
 The place, time, objects and their knower etc., projected in a dream
during sleep are all mithyA (an illusion/false). So too, here. in the
waking state, the world that is seen is a projection by one's own
ignorance. Likewise, this body, the senses, the breath, the ego etc.,
are all unreal. Therefore, That thou art, the peaceful, defectless,
supreme, non-dual Brahman.  -- Adi Shankara in VivekacUdAmani.

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