Vaidya N. Sundaram sundaram at ECN.PURDUE.EDU
Sat Jul 4 18:21:35 CDT 1998

 adhikaariNamaashaaste phalasiddhirvisheshhataH .
 upaayaa deshakaalaadyaaH santyasminsahakaariNaH

 The fruitfulness (of such vicAra) specially depends on a qualified
person; the means of place and time are only auxiliaries.

 Those who maintain that place and time are the cheif determinants of the
fruitfulness of a karma argue that the effects of karma are invisible and
that folowing the words of the Sruti literally is important. Hence when
the Vedas say: 'yadAhavanIye juhoti', asvasya pade juhoti' etc (One makes
an ofering in the AvahanIya fire, One makes homa at the foot of a horse),
it is to be accepted as it is and it must lso be accepted that place and
time are indisputable instruments of a vaidika karma.
 In respect to jn~ana also, the Sruti's declare that Atmajn~ana is to be
obtained only in this world and in Brahmaloka. In the other worlds, like
pitrloka and gandharvaloka, the knowledge is clouded as in a reflection in
moving water. Hence if one does not take effort to obtain jn~ana here,
great is the loss.
 Similarly, the Sruti further states: rnatrayam apAkrtya mano mokse
nivesayet | anapAkrtya moksam tu sevamAnovrajatyadhah || (Jabala). 'One
should turn one's mind to thought of loberation only after having
discharged the three debts (to pitrs or ancestors by rainsing progeny; to
rishis or the sages by study of the vedas and to the devas or gods by
making sacrifices). If one turns to liberation without doing so, one will
fall down. The sruti also state that one is to take up samnyasa only after
vAnaprstha, which has been preceeded by grhastAshrama which was preceeded
by BrahmacaryAshrama. Thus various reasons are given for the importance of
time and place with regrad to Atmajn~ana also.
 To this we reply: In respect of the efficacy of place, namely brahmaloka
for getting brahmajn~ana, we see from the Chand. Up. story that the
rAkshasa king Virocana went to Brahmaloka for Atmajn~ana and was taught by
the best of teachers, Brahma Himself. Yet, he did not realsie Atman as he
was of impure mind. That shows that the qualification of a person, not the
place of instruction is important as the efficient means to Atmajn~ana.
 There are Sruti verses that say; He is a supreme-samnyasin (or is said to
have acquired supreme renounciation), who, impelled by a deep desire to
perceive the truth, renounce everything from BrahmacaryaAshrama itself.
 Moreover, in continuation of the jabala text: brahmacaryam samApya grhi
bhavet etc (which says that Samnyasa Ashrama is to be taken only after
Vanaprshta, preceded by grhastAshrama etc), it is said: yadivetarathA
brahmacaryAdeva pravrajet grhAdvA vanAdvA yadahareva virajet tadahareva
pravrajet. 'Otherwise one may renounce from brahmacarya or grhasthya or
vAnaprshtha. One should renounce the moment one attains detachment.'
Therefore, that place and time are only auxiliaries is declared because
because these are not prescribed for one who has acquired the four fold
qualification beginning with vairAgya (for brahmajn~ana).
 asyAm in santyasyAm has the meaning of siddhau i.e, they (place and time)
function only as auxiliaries when adhikAra is acquired.

                      Vaidya N. Sundaram
 Kandavar Vindilar      : Those who have seen (Brahman) have not spoken
  Vindavar Kandilar     :   those who speak (about It) have not seen (It)
    satyakAma, satyasaMkalpa, Apatsakha, kAkutsa, shrIman nArAyaNa
        puruShottaMa, shrI ranganAtha, mama nAtha, namostute.

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