Next, Sri Shamkara speaks of the six virtues needed in the disciple. Only in the presence of these does mumukshutva arise. The following describe the six characteristics of sama, dama, uparati, titika, sraddhaa
virajya vishhayavraataaddoshhadR^ishhTyaa muhurmuhuH .
svalakshye niyataavasthaa manasaH shama uchyate ..
Detaching the mind from the manifold sense pleasures again and again perceiving their pernicious character, resting it permanently on one's objective is called sama.
Sense pleasures have a beginning and an end, and have a limited duration and become insipid. Seen these defects, vairaagya is attainedfrom them, and the mind rests, unmoving and unchanging from its objective.
vishhayebhyaH paraavartya sthaapanaM svasvagolake .
ubhayeshhaamindriyaaNaaM sa damaH parikiirtitaH .
The retention of both kinds of senses in their respective orbs with drawing them from sense objects is spoken of dama.
With respect to sama or mind-control, self - withdrawal of the mind was spoken of as sama. On the other hand, karmendriyas like speech, and jn~aanendriyas like ear cannot go out on their own to seek sense pleasures like the mind, which can go of its own accord. Hence, using the mind as reins, the mind itself as well as the other karmendriyas and jn~aanendriyas should be withdrawn or held in check. this is called dama.
The pre-eminent uparati is the mind ceasing to function through anything external.
Even as the water in a tank goes through its outlets and engulfs the fields etc., so too the mind which is inside comes out through the opening of the ears etc., and is transformed into the objects like sound etc. This transformation is called manovrtii (the mental mode). When the mind does not go out, it cannot get transformed.
sahanaM sarvaduHkhaanaamapratiikaarapuurvakam.h .
chintaavilaaparahitaM saa titikshaa nigadyate ..
Endurance of all afflictions without countering aids, and without anxiety or lament is said to be titiksaa.
When the mind (citta) is connected with anything external, it is unaffected by the dualities of cold and heat. Even if these dualities occur in relation to a person by virtue of karma or kaala etc., there will arise titiksaa which makes for their enduran ce. Also, this endurance is without anxiety as a mind with anxiety and lament is as distant as ever from (is unfit for) inquiry.
shaastrasya guruvaakyasya satyabud.hdhyavadhaaraNam.h .
saa shraddhaa kathitaa sad.hbhiryayaa vastuupalabhyate ..
Ascertainment of the scripture and of the words of the guru with conviction about their truth is called sraddhaa by the good and as that by which knowledge of Reality is obtained.
Even in matters related to sense perception, a man does not act without any guidelines, or in other words, faith in another trust worthy person. When this being the case for even gross objects, what needs be said regards the meaning of scriptures which i s beyond sense perception. Even in the Gita, Sri Krishna says, "Persons without sraddhaa in this dharma go back along the road of death and samsaara ithout attaining Me".
sarvadaa sthaapanaM buddheH shuddhe brahmaNi sarvadaa .
tatsamaadhaanamityuktaM na tu chittasya laalanam.h ..
The perfect establishment of the buddhi always in the nirguna Brahman is said to be samaadhaana, not the indulgence of the mind.
There may appear to be no difference between this kind samaadhana and sama hich is of the firm of being firmly concentrated in one's objective. But as stated in sloka 22-23) in the case of sama, there is need for effort in respect of steadying the mind c haracterised by samkalpa and vikalpa, i.e., determination and doubt. hence firmly fixing the buddhi with conviction in the Pure Nirguna Brahman is samaadhaana. By this reference is also made to the antahkarana freed from every kind of determination or dou bt. That is why Sri Bhagavatpaada used the word buddhi of the form of decision instead of the word manas. Also, in speaking of sama, being concentrated on one's goal can also happen in respect of saguna Brahman. Strictly speaking, sama is the means (saad hana) and samaadhaana is its fruit, its culmination.