19, 19 1/2)
aadau nityaanityavastuvivekaH parigaNyate .
First discrimination between the everlasting and the transient is mentioned. After that comes detachment from the enjoyment of fruits (of karmas) here (on earth) and elsewhere (in heaven). then it is clear (that following this are ) possession of the six virtues commencing with sama and (lastly comes) the desire for release.
Each of these virtues after viveka follows from its preceding one in consecution. What precedes is the ground of what succeeds. It is only he who knows, 'this is eternal; this is transient' that will with draw his mind from what is transient. Because vai raagya cannot be secured in the absence of discrimination between the eternal and the transient, viveka is said to be the cause of vairaagya.
It is only a person who has vairaagya that can acquire saanti (mind control) and daanti (sense control) which arise from controlling respectively the internal and external organs. Moreover, daanti external sense control (bahirindriyanirodha) can be effec ted only when there is control of the mind (the antarindriya or antahkarana); for if they have no connection with the mind, the sense organs cannot execute anything. To the question, if upon achieving sama, dama is automatically effected, why should it be included specifically among the saadhanas, it is replied that as stated in the Gitaa: indriyaani pramaathIni haranti prasabham manah: "the sense organs going astray forcefully draw the mind", if the external organs are not held in check, mind control cannot be perfectly established.
samnyaasa signified by uparati (withdrawal) will mark only him who has acquired mastery over his internal and external organs. Such a samnyaasin alone can have titiksaa which is the ability to endure without a concern
the dualities like cold and heat. As his mind will not be detracted by anything outside of him, he alone can be said to have samaadhi or concentration whihc is characterised by unswerving establishment in the
thought of Brahman. In one thus qualified alone will arise sraddhA or faith in the teaching of the guru and of Vedanta that what is real is Brahman and that the
jagat (the material world) is mithyaa. Thus it is clear that in the series beginning with sama, what succeeds depends on what precedes. A person so perfectly qualifed as thus will not desire
anything except release. He does not brook any delay respecting it. He is characterised by superlatively earnest desire for liberation (tIvramumuksutva). hence the reference to 'in the beginning nityA nitya
Hence it becomse clear that as viveka is mentioned before vairaagya, viveka or discrimination is the cause for vairaagya.
brahma satyaM jaganmithyetyevaMruupo vinishchayaH .
so.ayaM nityaanityavastuvivekaH samudaahR^itaH
The firm understanding that reality is Brahman and that the material world (jagat) is mithyaa is spoken of as discrimination between the eternal and the transcient (nityaanityavastuviveka).
Sri Bhagavatpaada paraphrases nityaanityavastuviveka as the knowledge that Brahman is satyam and jagat is mithyaa. That is because, even if one had firm understanding that Brahman is nitya and jagat is anitya, absolute and uncompromising vairaagya does not arise; for even transient pleasures are sought. But when the jagat is declared to be mithyaa, an object which is mithyaa (which has no substantiality) is not desired by anyone. Those who wish to have a kingdom are not satisfied with a kingdom seen in the dream. Hence to stabilise vairaagya, instead of saying brahma nityam jagat anityam, sri Bhagavatpaada says brahma satyam jaganmithyaa. viniscayah means visesena niscayah: strong conviction. By the word niscaya is signified not falling away (from truth) as result of ideas which are not warranted by (absolute) pramaanas. so'yam split into sah and ayam. Sah that which has been referred to as qualified by viveka; ayam means that this has been spoken of in the beginning as nitaanityavastuviveka. samudhaahrtam (samyak udhaahrtam) i.e. well explained. Only this viveka will make for vairaagya from enjoyments of the fruits of karmas, here in the world and elsewhere in heaven.