[Advaita-l] Srimad ParamahaMsa ParivrAjakAchAryavaryavarya
jaldhar at braincells.com
jaldhar at braincells.com
Tue Jul 19 02:05:56 EDT 2022
On Mon, 18 Jul 2022, Jaldhar H. Vyas via Advaita-l wrote:
> "And then the Parivrajakas who live in dwellings of their own such as the
> SAmkhyas, Yogis, Kapilas, Bhargavas, and many others living in mountain
> caves, ashramas, temples, and visiting the villages [only] for begging alms,
> the haMsas, paramahaMsas, the bahudakas, Kuticharas and the kR^iShNa
> ParivrAjakas including eight types of Brahmanas such as: kR^iShNa,
> karakANDa, amvADa, pArAshara, kR^iShNa, dvIpAyana, and nArada and eight
> types of kShatrIya parivrAjakas such as silai, sashihara, naggai, bhaggai,
> videha, rAyArAya, rAyArAma and bala who are versed in the four vedas,
> R^ik, yaju, sAma, and atharva, the itihasa, and the fifth; of which they
> know the rahasya; of which they have reached the end and of which they
> are upholders; and who are experts in the six-fold a~ngas, shikShA, kalpa,
> vyAkaraNa, chanda, nirukta and jyotiSha; in the shaShTitantra and in
"Those parivrAjakas who live on dAna only, by practicing shuddhi and
bathing in tirthas, who teach these precepts to others saying, 'We purify
our bodies in this way and our clothes, our conduct, and therefore our
atmas. By ablutions of water we shall surely attain svarga.'
Those parivrAjakas who do not bathe in a well, tank, river, lake,
pushkariNi, artificial lake, guNjalikA, sea or ocean.
Those parivrAjakas who do not ride in any vehicle from a bullock cart to
syandamANikA; who do not watch any performance from naTaprekSha to
mAgadhaprekSha; who do not graft plants or harvest them, or collect
their fruits, or uproot them.
Those parivrAjakas who do not gossip about women, or food, or the
country or the king, or thieves; Who only carry kamandalus made of
gourd or wood or clay not iron, pittal, brass, lead, silver gold or any
other which is expensive
Those parivrAjakas who do not use cooking pots with chains of iron,
pittal, brass, copper or any other which is expensive; who do not wear
clothes of any colour except kesari; who do not except a copper ring, wear
any necklace, ardhahAra, ekAvalI, muktAvalI, kanakAvalI, murabI,
kanThamurabI, prAlamba, keyUra, kuNDala, crown or chuDAmaNI
Those parivrAjakas who do not wear, except karNapura any other
garland made of threaded flowers or flowers wrapped around a frame or
tied together; who do not massage their bodies except with ganga clay
not with camphor, sandalwood, kumkum or precious perfumes, who do not
drink more than a mAgadhaprasthaka of water and that only from a
flowing stream not a stagnant pool; which has pure soil on the riverbed
not moss; absolutely clean not contaminated; offered by someone else not
taken; just to drink not to wash hands, feet, vessels etc or to bathe.
Those parivrAjakas who are allowed to take half a mAgadhADhaka of
water from a flowing stream etc. to wash hands, feet, vessels etc. but
not to drink or bathe.
The parivrAjakas who live like this, fully bearing this discipline for
many years will be born again in brahmaloka as devatAs. The span of their
stay there is 10 sagaras of years. The rest is as before.
 A lotus pond, either natural or constructed.
 This is a sort of pleasure lake constructed for a king and his wives
 What all these have in common is they are public places. The
parivrajaka will not bathe there with the exception of tirths. Even there
as we see in tirths today, there are often separate areas or times for
sannyasis to bathe.
 A type of ornate palanquin
 A play or dance performed for an audience
 A performance of an epic song about kings, their heroic deeds,
illustrious ancestry etc.
 In other words they do not practice agriculture. However according to
dharmashastras, they are allowed to pick up the grains left behind after
harvest or eat fruit that has naturally fallen from the tree.
 i.e. politics.
 These are different types of jewelery.
 an ornament for the ears made of flowers
 a unit of measure. I don't know how much exactly.
 another unit of measure. Again I don't know how much but it seems to
be greater than a mAgadhaprasthaka. Also the fact that they are prefixed
with mAgadha (the area MahavIra was from) indicates that they are local
units and may have had different values elsewhere in India or replaced by
other units altogether.
 i.e. the same stipulations as in the previous paragraph.
 a sagara or jaladhi is 100 crore of crores. so 10 of those is
altogether 10 to the power of 15 years.
 In describing the various types of non-Jains who have some measure of
punya, this sUtra follows a formula. First the description of their
lifestyle. Then the length of their reward in various heavenly worlds,
and then how they will be reborn as Jains or hear the true (i.e. Jain)
dharma in some other way and get moksha. In other words to use our
terminology, the best a virtuous non-Jain can acheive is kramamukti
whereas only Jains can achieve jivanmukti
When reading works like this, one must bear in mind they were written by
outsiders and often rivals. They may have deliberately or accidently
misunderstood certain ideas or practices. Nevertheless I think this gives
a pretty interesting glimpse into how sannyasa must have been in early
Jaldhar H. Vyas <jaldhar at braincells.com>
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