[Advaita-l] Obstacles for Spoiritual Realization - adhikaari bhedas
v.subrahmanian at gmail.com
Fri Feb 17 02:51:00 EST 2017
I shared an image of the BGB 13.24 English translation of Alladi Mahadeva
> Sastri for Anandagiri's gloss referring to adhikāri bheda with *Sri
> Nithin personally*.
> Since the image cannot be either attached or pasted in this forum I am not
> sharing with all.
> On Fri, Feb 17, 2017 at 9:02 AM, Nithin Sridhar via Advaita-l <
> advaita-l at lists.advaita-vedanta.org> wrote:
>> Thank you for the elaborate explanation Sada ji. What I am specifically
>> looking for is a scriptural reference or a reference from our Acharyas be
>> it Gaudapada, Shankaracharya, or others, for this specific aspect "For
>> manda, Vedanta does not produce jnaanam or jnaaa phalam (jjivan mukti).
>> uttama adhikaari, he gets both jnaana and jnaana phalam, just by listening
>> to the teachings, shravanam and mananam".
>> I want the reference to quote in one of my references. The Karika of
>> Gaudapada does not specifically mention the above, I was wondering if any
>> of our Acharyas specifically mention this that for Uttama Adhikari,
>> directly leads to Jnana and Moksha, while Madhyama adhikari require
>> Nidhidhyasa and the Mandha adhikari requires Karma+Upasana.
>> On Fri, Feb 17, 2017 at 8:33 AM, kuntimaddi sadananda <
>> kuntimaddisada at yahoo.com> wrote:
>> > Nithinji - PraNams - The adhikaari bhedas were also discussed by
>> > Goudapaada in his kaarika. My writings were based on that. Here is the
>> > previous post related to this. Hope this helps.
>> > Hari Om!
>> > ------------------------------
>> > *From:* Nithin Sridhar via Advaita-l <advaita-l at lists.advaita-vedan
>> > Are there any other references to uttama,madhyama, adhama adhikaris with
>> > respect to sravana etc. from Sanskrit texts written by our Acharys, be
>> > in Bhashyas, Tikas, or Vartikas, or even Prakarana Granthas?
>> > ------------------------------------------------------
>> > Obstacles for self-realization-6
>> > In the previous posts, we have presented the three major obstacles to
>> > spirituality, based on Gita. Goudapaada in his Mandukya Kaarika in
>> > prakaraNa considers four more obstacles for spirituality. Before we go
>> > into this analysis we will first recognize that the aatma vidya or
>> > knowledge of Advaita provides two fold benefits for the seekers. One is
>> > owning up one’s own freedom from limitations, which is primary and that
>> > jnaanam. The second is an emotional transformation of the mind. This is
>> > called jnaana phalam or fruits of the jnaana. As a result of jnaanam,
>> > mind of a jnaani becomes strong, healthy with no emotional disturbances
>> > when faced with the objects, people or course of events due to
>> > which can be pleasurable or painful, during the span of his remaining
>> > This emotional transformation or freedom is the secondary benefit or
>> > avantara phalam and contributes to his jiivan mukti. Even though
>> > talk about the emotional benefits like calmness, contentment,
>> > compassion, love, etc – all these emotional benefits are not derived
>> > uniformly by all the Vedantic students. All the students do not derive
>> > benefit of the jiivanmukti, even though the teaching was the same for
>> > students, that too by the same teacher, as one finds for the students in
>> > Kenopanishad. The disparities among the students arise due to
>> > in their mental preparations. There is a gradation in the fitness or
>> > qualification or adhikaaritvam or in the required saadhana chatuShTaya
>> > sampatti among the students, and therefore the fruits of jnaana are also
>> > graded. Hence saadhana chatuShTaya sampatti plays a great role in aatma
>> > vidya. Shree Vidyaranya classifies Jeevanmukti-s based on the degree of
>> > purity of their minds.
>> > Goudapaada classifies students broadly into three categories – manda,
>> > madhyama, and uttama - depending on their maturity or on their four-fold
>> > qualifications.
>> > For manda, Vedanta does not produce jnaanam or jnaaa phalam (jjivan
>> > mukti). For uttama adhikaari, he gets both jnaana and jnaana phalam,
>> > by listening to the teachings, shravanam and mananam. The uttama
>> > student is like Nachiketa of KaThopanishad. We are not concerned about
>> > this uttama adhikaari. The discussion is therefore about the other two,
>> > madhyama and manda. For majority of us who are in the middle or
>> > Vedantic knowledge is received. We have no doubts whatsoever. That is we
>> > understand Vedanta. Jnaanam is there, but this knowledge does not
>> result in
>> > emotional transformation or derive the benefits at the emotional level.
>> > knowledge is full, but jiivan mukti is not there. Jnaanam and samsaara
>> > to co-exist for us. For jnaanam to get transformed into jnaana phalam,
>> > obstacles preventing the transformation have to be slowly resolved.
>> This is
>> > the role of Nidhidhyaasanam. Here the intellect and the mind are still
>> > diverged resulting in having knowledge but that knowledge is getting
>> > blocked at emotional level by the pressure of the remnant vaasanaas.
>> Such a
>> > dichotomy seems to be there – knowledge is full but no jiivan mukti –
>> > jnaanam and samsaara seemingly co-existing together. This is because of
>> > incomplete saadhana chatuShTaya sampatti or the four fold
>> > Let us take a simple illustrative example for this. Let us say we have a
>> > tank full of water, but no water is coming when we open a tap. Obviously
>> > there must be some block preventing the water in the pipe line. To
>> > this problem, what is required is not adding more water into the tank,
>> > removing the block that is preventing the water from gushing through the
>> > pipe-line. Similarly in the aatma vidya, the cause for the block is
>> > insufficient preparation or jnaana yogyataa. This required jnaana
>> > vairaagyam, that is knowledge generated dispassion, is not fully
>> > giving rise to raaga and dvesha or likes and dislikes, which still
>> > the mental moods. It is like I know smocking is bad (knowledge is there)
>> > but I am still tempted to smoke when I smell a cigarette. Thus habits of
>> > the past still haunt the mind. Krishna calls this as rasa or lingering
>> > taste for sensuous enjoyments. He gives a method of overcoming them
>> > which we will discuss later. In Ch. 4, He suggests knowledge based
>> > dispassion or jnanena karma saynaasaH, or in shot, jnaana-karma-sanyaasa
>> > yoga, as the title of the chapter suggests. This is also called vidvat
>> > sanyaasa. Here the dispassion is generated by the emotional mind
>> abiding in
>> > the intellect that has clear understanding of the mahaavaakya. For
>> > nidhidhyaasana, is bhoutika or physical sanyaasa necessary? We will
>> > this question in detail later. For the time being we understand that
>> > Saadhana chatuShTaya sampatti is necessary, and all other things are
>> > instrumental or helpful aids.
>> > Now the question is what the remedies are. For uttama adhikaari, there
>> > no problem and therefore his case is of no concern to us. In the case of
>> > manda adhikaari, the saadhana sampatti level is very low. Hence the
>> > saadhaka or seeker has to concentrate on the karma yoga and the upaasana
>> > yoga, which will prepare the mind to gain the knowledge. For him the
>> > Vedantic study will have less impact compared to karma yoga and upaasana
>> > yoga. We do not have to tell him that he need not have to attend the
>> > Vedanta classes. Many a time he automatically drops them because the
>> > is not ready to hold on to the teaching due to his extroverted-ness.
>> > We hear people saying that they want to attend the Vedanta classes, but
>> > they do not have time; implication of this being the study of Vedanta is
>> > not of their priority. Some even do not want to hear about it thinking
>> > this is only for the old or retired people, who have nothing else to
>> do. Krishna
>> > gives the statistics – of the thousands of people, very few are really
>> > interested in this teaching. Of those who are interested, very few make
>> > attempt to realize, and of those who make an attempt very few really
>> > succeed- manushyaanaam sahasreshu….Hence for manda adhikaari, even if he
>> > attempts Vedanta study, the shravana itself becomes another form of
>> > yoga, as purifier for the mind. The process will continue until his mind
>> > becomes more mature when he starts recognizing that Vedantic study is
>> > important than any other activity in life, and hence his priorities
>> > From the initial state where he felt that he did not have time for
>> > he evolves to the state where he feels that he does not have time or
>> > interest for other things in life. His mind is becoming more mature.
>> > Vedanta refers to such a mind only in the Mundaka sloka –
>> > karma chitaan brahmano… –the one who has recognized the futility of
>> > extroverted life-pursuits in giving eternal happiness – the advise of
>> > Upanishads is for him to approach an aachaarya for serious Vedantic
>> > Madhyama adhikaari has the ability to receive the knowledge. He is the
>> > who says I understand Vedanta, but…That –but- means there is no
>> > in receiving the knowledge but jnaana phalam or jiivanmukti status is
>> > derived. This madhyama adhikaari need not have go back to karma yoga and
>> > upaasana yoga. He can keep doing whatever he is doing as his daily
>> > without the need of any special concentration on extra karma yoga. What
>> > required now is Nidhidhyaasanam to internalize the teaching. The
>> > now in the form of nidhidhyaasana, will convert him from madhyama to
>> > adhikaari – the block gets freed- jaanam itself converts into jnaana
>> > phalam. We will now look into what is involved in Nidhidhyaasanam.
>> > Nidhidhaasanam:
>> > Nidhidhyaasanam depends on manonigraha, that is, control of the mind.
>> > reception and conversion of the knowledge both depend on the control of
>> > mind, which is one of the six mental disciplines, shaadhana shatka
>> > sampatti. Of these, shama is manonigraha or mental discipline. Here it
>> > represents the entire saadhana chatuShTaya sampatti too, that is, all
>> > four-fold disciplines. The lack of this mental discipline expresses in
>> > ways. First it expresses in terms of a sense of insecurity for myself,
>> > then for my-people who depend on me. It is essentially a manifestation
>> > ahankaara and mamakaara. Knowledge should give freedom from this sense
>> > insecurity -abhayam pratishTaam vidate, says Ti. Up. The second
>> > of this insufficient preparation is lack of freedom from sorrow due to
>> > things, people and their behavior around. This results in lack of peace
>> > mind. Jnaanam should give ever lasting peace – shatam-shivam advaitam
>> > .
>> > Jnaani will have everlasting peace – peace that paasth understanding.
>> > Others get peace of mind occasionally when things are conducive to their
>> > likes. All the three noted above put together (i.e. sense of security,
>> > freedom from sorrow and peace of mind) is jnaana phalam. Thus both
>> > and jnaana phalam depend on the saadhana chatuShTaya sampatti. There
>> are no
>> > exceptions to this. How do we know we have the requisite saadhana
>> > chatuShTaya sampatti? In olden days when the student used to live with
>> > teacher, by observing the student for a length of time, the teacher
>> > find out. The teaching is given only for those students who are ready.
>> > present times, where we do not have such gurukula systems, we need to
>> > evaluate ourselves. Two questions to be answered; one is how to get the
>> > saadhana chatuShTaya sampatti and second how to check what we have is
>> > it requires. We will discuss these in the next post.
>> > Hari Om!
>> > Sadananda
>> Nithin S
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