[Advaita-l] Obstacles for Spoiritual Realization - adhikaari bhedas

Nithin Sridhar sridhar.nithin at gmail.com
Thu Feb 16 22:32:30 EST 2017

Thank you for the elaborate explanation Sada ji. What I am specifically
looking for is a scriptural reference or a reference from our Acharyas be
it Gaudapada, Shankaracharya, or others, for this specific aspect "For
manda, Vedanta does not produce jnaanam or jnaaa phalam (jjivan mukti). For
uttama adhikaari, he gets both jnaana and jnaana phalam, just by listening
to the teachings, shravanam and mananam".

I want the reference to quote in one of my references. The Karika of
Gaudapada does not specifically mention the above, I was wondering if any
of our Acharyas specifically mention this that for Uttama Adhikari, Sravana
directly leads to Jnana and Moksha, while Madhyama adhikari require
Nidhidhyasa and the Mandha adhikari requires Karma+Upasana.


On Fri, Feb 17, 2017 at 8:33 AM, kuntimaddi sadananda <
kuntimaddisada at yahoo.com> wrote:

> Nithinji - PraNams - The adhikaari bhedas were also discussed by
> Goudapaada in his kaarika.  My writings were based on that. Here is the
> previous post related to this. Hope this helps.
> Hari Om!
> ------------------------------
> *From:* Nithin Sridhar via Advaita-l <advaita-l at lists.advaita-vedanta.org>
> Are there any other references to uttama,madhyama, adhama adhikaris with
> respect to sravana etc. from Sanskrit texts written by our Acharys, be it
> in Bhashyas, Tikas, or Vartikas, or even Prakarana Granthas?
> ------------------------------------------------------
> Obstacles for self-realization-6
> In the previous posts, we have presented the three major obstacles to
> spirituality, based on Gita. Goudapaada in his Mandukya Kaarika in advaita
> prakaraNa considers four more obstacles for spirituality.  Before we go
> into this analysis we will first recognize that the aatma vidya or
> knowledge of Advaita provides two fold benefits for the seekers. One is the
> owning up one’s own freedom from limitations, which is primary and that is
> jnaanam. The second is an emotional transformation of the mind. This is
> called jnaana phalam or fruits of the jnaana. As a result of jnaanam, the
> mind of a jnaani becomes strong, healthy with no emotional disturbances
> when faced with the objects, people or course of events due to praarabda,
> which can be pleasurable or painful, during the span of his remaining life.
> This emotional transformation or freedom is the secondary benefit or
> avantara phalam and contributes to his jiivan mukti. Even though scriptures
> talk about the emotional benefits like calmness, contentment, fearlessness,
> compassion, love, etc – all these emotional benefits are not derived
> uniformly by all the Vedantic students. All the students do not derive the
> benefit of the jiivanmukti, even though the teaching was the same for all
> students, that too by the same teacher, as one finds for the students in
> Kenopanishad. The disparities among the students arise due to differences
> in their mental preparations. There is a gradation in the fitness or
> qualification or adhikaaritvam or in the required saadhana chatuShTaya
> sampatti among the students, and therefore the fruits of jnaana are also
> graded. Hence saadhana chatuShTaya sampatti plays a great role in aatma
> vidya. Shree Vidyaranya classifies Jeevanmukti-s based on the degree of
> purity of their minds.
> Goudapaada classifies students broadly into three categories – manda,
> madhyama, and uttama - depending on their maturity or on their four-fold
> qualifications.
> For manda, Vedanta does not produce jnaanam or jnaaa phalam (jjivan
> mukti). For uttama adhikaari, he gets both jnaana and jnaana phalam, just
> by listening to the teachings, shravanam and mananam. The uttama adhikaari
> student is like Nachiketa of KaThopanishad.  We are not concerned about
> this uttama adhikaari.  The discussion is therefore about the other two,
> madhyama and manda. For majority of us who are in the middle or madhyama,
> Vedantic knowledge is received. We have no doubts whatsoever. That is we
> understand Vedanta. Jnaanam is there, but this knowledge does not result in
> emotional transformation or derive the benefits at the emotional level. The
> knowledge is full, but jiivan mukti is not there. Jnaanam and samsaara seem
> to co-exist for us. For jnaanam to get transformed into jnaana phalam, the
> obstacles preventing the transformation have to be slowly resolved. This is
> the role of Nidhidhyaasanam. Here the intellect and the mind are still
> diverged resulting in having knowledge but that knowledge is getting
> blocked at emotional level by the pressure of the remnant vaasanaas. Such a
> dichotomy seems to be there – knowledge is full but no jiivan mukti –
> jnaanam and samsaara seemingly co-existing together.  This is because of
> incomplete saadhana chatuShTaya sampatti or the four fold qualifications.
> Let us take a simple illustrative example for this. Let us say we have a
> tank full of water, but no water is coming when we open a tap. Obviously
> there must be some block preventing the water in the pipe line.  To solve
> this problem, what is required is not adding more water into the tank, but
> removing the block that is preventing the water from gushing through the
> pipe-line. Similarly in the aatma vidya, the cause for the block is
> insufficient preparation or jnaana yogyataa. This required jnaana
> vairaagyam, that is knowledge generated dispassion, is not fully developed
> giving rise to raaga and dvesha or likes and dislikes, which still control
> the mental moods. It is like I know smocking is bad (knowledge is there)
> but I am still tempted to smoke when I smell a cigarette. Thus habits of
> the past still haunt the mind. Krishna calls this as rasa or lingering
> taste for sensuous enjoyments.  He gives a method of overcoming them too,
> which we will discuss later. In Ch. 4, He suggests knowledge based
> dispassion or jnanena karma saynaasaH, or in shot, jnaana-karma-sanyaasa
> yoga, as the title of the chapter suggests. This is also called vidvat
> sanyaasa. Here the dispassion is generated by the emotional mind abiding in
> the intellect that has clear understanding of the mahaavaakya. For
> nidhidhyaasana, is bhoutika or physical sanyaasa necessary? We will address
> this question in detail later. For the time being we understand that
> Saadhana chatuShTaya sampatti is necessary, and all other things are only
> instrumental or helpful aids.
> Now the question is what the remedies are. For uttama adhikaari, there is
> no problem and therefore his case is of no concern to us. In the case of
> manda adhikaari, the saadhana sampatti level is very low. Hence the
> saadhaka or seeker has to concentrate on the karma yoga and the upaasana
> yoga, which will prepare the mind to gain the knowledge.  For him the
> Vedantic study will have less impact compared to karma yoga and upaasana
> yoga. We do not have to tell him that he need not have to attend the
> Vedanta classes. Many a time he automatically drops them because the mind
> is not ready to hold on to the teaching due to his extroverted-ness.
> We hear people saying that they want to attend the Vedanta classes, but
> they do not have time; implication of this being the study of Vedanta is
> not of their priority. Some even do not want to hear about it thinking that
> this is only for the old or retired people, who have nothing else to do.  Krishna
> gives the statistics – of the thousands of people, very few are really
> interested in this teaching. Of those who are interested, very few make an
> attempt to realize, and of those who make an attempt very few really
> succeed- manushyaanaam sahasreshu….Hence for manda adhikaari, even if he
> attempts Vedanta study, the shravana itself becomes another form of karma
> yoga, as purifier for the mind. The process will continue until his mind
> becomes more mature when he starts recognizing that Vedantic study is more
> important than any other activity in life, and hence his priorities change.
> From the initial state where he felt that he did not have time for Vedanta,
> he evolves to the state where he feels that he does not have time or
> interest for other things in life. His mind is becoming more mature.
> Vedanta refers to such a mind only in the Mundaka sloka – pariikshalokaan
> karma chitaan brahmano… –the one who has recognized the futility of
> extroverted life-pursuits in giving eternal happiness – the advise of the
> Upanishads is for him to approach an aachaarya for serious Vedantic study.
> Madhyama adhikaari has the ability to receive the knowledge. He is the one
> who says I understand Vedanta, but…That –but- means there is no difficulty
> in receiving the knowledge but jnaana phalam or jiivanmukti status is not
> derived. This madhyama adhikaari need not have go back to karma yoga and
> upaasana yoga. He can keep doing whatever he is doing as his daily routine
> without the need of any special concentration on extra karma yoga. What is
> required now is Nidhidhyaasanam to internalize the teaching. The saadhana,
> now in the form of nidhidhyaasana, will convert him from madhyama to uttama
> adhikaari – the block gets freed- jaanam itself converts into jnaana
> phalam.  We will now look into what is involved in Nidhidhyaasanam.
> Nidhidhaasanam:
> Nidhidhyaasanam depends on manonigraha, that is, control of the mind. The
> reception and conversion of the knowledge both depend on the control of the
> mind, which is one of the six mental disciplines, shaadhana shatka
> sampatti. Of these, shama is manonigraha or mental discipline. Here it
> represents the entire saadhana chatuShTaya sampatti too, that is, all the
> four-fold disciplines. The lack of this mental discipline expresses in many
> ways. First it expresses in terms of a sense of insecurity for myself, and
> then for my-people who depend on me. It is essentially a manifestation of
> ahankaara and mamakaara. Knowledge should give freedom from this sense of
> insecurity -abhayam pratishTaam vidate, says Ti. Up. The second expression
> of this insufficient preparation is lack of freedom from sorrow due to
> things, people and their behavior around. This results in lack of peace of
> mind. Jnaanam should give ever lasting peace – shatam-shivam advaitam
> .
> Jnaani will have everlasting peace – peace that paasth understanding.
> Others get peace of mind occasionally when things are conducive to their
> likes.  All the three noted above put together (i.e. sense of security,
> freedom from sorrow and peace of mind) is jnaana phalam. Thus both jnaanam
> and jnaana phalam depend on the saadhana chatuShTaya sampatti. There are no
> exceptions to this. How do we know we have the requisite saadhana
> chatuShTaya sampatti? In olden days when the student used to live with the
> teacher, by observing the student for a length of time, the teacher would
> find out. The teaching is given only for those students who are ready. At
> present times, where we do not have such gurukula systems, we need to
> evaluate ourselves. Two questions to be answered; one is how to get the
> saadhana chatuShTaya sampatti and second how to check what we have is what
> it requires. We will discuss these in the next post.
> Hari Om!
> Sadananda

Nithin S

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