[Advaita-l] karmasrishTi vAda
bhaskar.yr at in.abb.com
Tue Dec 13 02:11:30 CST 2016
praNAms Sri Venkatraghavan prabhuji
Yes, this is a good refutation of sAnkhya vAda which is dvaita pradhAna. But fact remains that these objections would hold good if dvaitins raise the same objections to advaitin's anAdirananta avidyA. Is this jeeva bhAva due to avidyA or jeeva has the avidyA?? If it is former than what is the mUlakAraNa of this avidyA and ashraya (locus) of this mUla kAraNa?? If it is latter than jeeva should have the prior existence and should have avidyA after coming into existence. Yes, ultimately no creation, no dissolution, no mOksha, no bandha, no sAdhaka says kArika but when it comes to srushti prakriya and kAraNa behind this srushti etc. our shruti, smruti, bhAshyakAra give a comprehensive explanation of srushti by using the terms like hiraNya garbha, Ishwara, pancha tanmAtra, pancha bhUta, pancha prANa, shareera traya, pancha jnAnendriya, karmendriya, manObuddhi ahaMkAra, karma, karma phala, karma dAta list will go on and on and on...If we straight away push aside these prakriya-s, then to that extent shruti, smruti would become apramANya.
And BTW, to be on the safer side, we should not show this advaitins justification for the dvaitins' objection in front of hardcore dvaitins, they have 101 cross objections to refute advaitins' clarification :-) just kidding :-)
Hari Hari Hari Bol!!!
From: Advaita-l [mailto:advaita-l-bounces at lists.advaita-vedanta.org] On Behalf Of Venkatraghavan S via Advaita-l
Sent: Thursday, December 08, 2016 9:13 PM
To: A discussion group for Advaita Vedanta <advaita-l at lists.advaita-vedanta.org>
Subject: [Advaita-l] karmasrishTi vAda
Gaudapda in slokas 14-23 of alAtashAnti prakaraNa of his mANDUkya kArika, refutes a certain group of dvaita philosophers who hold that the world was created according to the laws of Karma and therefore believe that karmic law is absolutely real.
Gaudapada offers 6 possibilities for how this can be held to be true by dvaitavAdins, and goes on to say how each one of the 6 suffers from logical defects. This method of refutation is called the विकल्प method.
6 possibilities for मूलकारणं, or ultimate cause of creation are put forward.
1) कर्म: Here by the word कर्म, कर्मफलं or पुण्यपापफलं is offered as the मूलकारणं for creation. It is because of कर्म that this world and the jIvasharIras are created, they say. Gaudapada uses the word हेतुः for कर्म. He says calling कर्म as मूलकारणं for srishTi won't work, because where did the हेतुः (= कर्म) come from? कर्म cannot accidently come, nor can Bhagavan arbitrarily create and assign कर्म. Therefore, it must be admitted that कर्म are generated out of actions performed by a कर्ता, who needs to have a शरीरं. Thus, कर्म cannot be the ultimate cause, the मूलकारणं for creation, as a शरीर is required for कर्म to be generated.
2) शरीरं - to remedy this, the dvaitavAdins say, let us say that शरीरं is the मूलकारणं for creation. Gaudapada uses the word फलं for शरीरं. The birth of the body, the type of body born, etc are not accidentally created, nor does Bhagavan arbitrarily determine this. The birth of the शरीरं is determined by कर्म, so शरीरं cannot be मूलकारणं for creation.
3) Now the dvaitavAdins say let us say, कर्म and शरीरं are mutually cause and effect. Gaudapada says this is illogical like saying father has produced the son and son has produced the father. So कर्म and शरीरं as mutual cause and effect also cannot be held to be the मूलकारणं for creation.
4) The dvaitavAdin then says, let us say कर्म and शरीरं are simultaneous products (युगपत् संभव:) from which creation originates. GaudapAda says, if they are simultaneous, they cannot have cause effect relationship.
Therefore, you would require another cause for कर्म and शरीरं. So simultaneously also, they cannot held to be मूलकारणं for creation.
5) The dvaitavAdin, feeling cornered, says कर्म and शरीरं form a cause-effect chain. That is, karmas produced using the previous body are the cause of the next body. That new body performs new karmas which are the cause for a newer body and so on, and so forth. Thus, a chain of कर्म and शरीरं can be called the मूलकारणं for creation according to him. Gaudapada says this is fine, but the question we are considering is "what is the मूलकारणं for srishTi", that is what is the original cause? If there is a chain of karma and sharIra, with each one acting as the cause of the next one, what is the first, original cause? That question is not answered.
6) Totally frustrated now, the dvaitavAdin says, I say that कर्म and शरीरं form an अनादि cause-effect chain, so the question "what is the मूलकारणं?"
need not be answered. It is an illegitimate question. Gaudapada says there are several defects in this theory:
a) When you say कर्म - शरीरं - chain (प्रवाह:) is अनादि, you are using an adjective, अनादि to qualify the three-word phrase: "अनादि कर्म शरीर प्रवाह:". Which of the three is qualified as अनादि? Not the first, because कर्म, has a beginning - it is created at a point in time from a sharIram.
Not the second, because sharIra also has a birth, a beginning due to karma.
Not the third, because there is no such thing called chain, a प्रवाह, other than the individual elements in the chain. It is only a concept in the mind. A family is a concept, it is not a thing. A society is a concept, it is not a thing. Similarly the chain is only a concept, not a thing.
Therefore there is no "thing" to which the qualifier "beginning-less" can be applied. Therefore, a beginning-less chain doesn't exist.
b) This is actually discussed a little later in kArika 4.30. Let us assume, for argument's sake, that a beginning-less chain does exist (अभ्युपेत्य वाद:). Does that beginning-less chain have an end or not? If it is beginning-less and endless, there is no possibility of moksha, अनिर्मोक्ष प्रसंग:. Why waste time on vedAnta shravaNa, manana, nidhidhyAsana? All moksha shAstra will be redundant or शास्त्र आनर्थक्य प्रसंग:. If it is beginning-less, but has an end, then the end of this chain will be the beginning of mokshA. Now, Gaudapada argues, whatever has a beginning has an end also, जातस्य ध्रुवो मृत्यु:, thus a mokshA which has a beginning, must also have an end. Of what use is such a temporary moksha? This also leads to अनिर्मोक्ष प्रसंग:. Hence, even if somehow a beginning-less chain of karma and sharIra has an end, the moksha thus gained from such a chain is not a real moksha.
Therefore, by the theory of karma, creation cannot be explained. Without explaining a cause, you cannot talk about an effect or a product. And if you cannot talk about a product, you cannot talk about creation. Thus, Gaudapada argues: *There is no creation. There is only Brahman.*
The last question asked by the pUrva pakshi is - O advaitin, if according to you, there is no creation, why do all the Upanishads talk of creation?
GaudapAda's answer in the second and third chapter is, really speaking there is no creation. However, a student is not prepared to accept there is no creation, from the beginning. Like a new-born child is not able to eat solid food, similarly if an unprepared student is told that there is no creation, he will dismiss it as untrue. Therefore, Veda compromises and temporarily accepts creation. This temporary acceptance is अध्यारोप:. Once the student is ready, the real teaching is revealed to him - There is no creation at all, अपवादः. Therefore, the ultimate teaching of vedAnta is ajAtivAda.
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