[Advaita-l] Shankara authenticates Shiva

Sujal Upadhyay sujal.u at gmail.com
Thu Aug 18 05:28:01 CDT 2016


w.r.t Br. Up. 1.4.11, what I feel is that since the name Ishana also
appears along with rudra, hence to distinguish from 8 rudra-s - Rudra,
Sarva, Pashupati, Ugra, Asani, Bhava, Mahadeva and Isana as mentioned in
Satpatha Brahmana, our āchārya must have specified it as pashupati-rudra.
He could also mention the name umāpati, etc.

Again, the word 'paśu' or 'pashu' also has different meanings like animal
or jīva.

8 rudra-s: Rudra, Sarva, Pashupati, Ugra, Asani, Bhava, Mahadeva and Isana
8 wives: Suverchalá, Ushá, Vikesí, Sivá, Swáhá, Diśá, Díkshá, and Rohiní
8 kingdoms: sun, water, earth, air, fire, ether, Brahman performing yajna,
and the moon
8 sons: Sanaiśchara (Saturn), Śukra (Venus), lohitannga (the fiery-bodied
Mars), Manojava (Hanumán), Skanda, Sarga, Santána, and Budha (Mercury)

Hence this rudra-s are not involved in destruction, but in the creation of
raudra shṛṣṭi.

This is found in VP 1.8.1-14

VP 1.8.12-14 says that -  In the same way, Rudra married Daksha's daughter
Sati, who got angry on daksha and immolated herself in yajña. Then she was
born (as umā) of Menā and Himālaya. She married Bhagavān Hara (उपयेमे
पुनश्चोमामनन्यां भगवान्हरः ।। वि.पु १.८.१४।।VP 1.8.14

The word used is 'Bhagavān Hara'. 'Bhagavān' Hara cannot be jīva.

I doubt that this is the same rudra who is considered as Śiva / Śankara who
is considered as creator, preserver and destroyer.

In Br. Up. 1.4.12, Ādi Śankara comments on vaiśya shṛṣṭi and presence of
many rudra-s like many Vasu-s adn gaṇeṣaḥ who collectively are able to do
the prescribed work.

Br. Up. 1.4.12. ... He created vaishyajāti. (Brahman) created those known
as - vasu, Rudra, Āditya, vishveda and marut etc devagaṇa are called as

Our Āchārya says, "...The purport or essence of multiplicity in deva-jāti
like that gaṇeṣaḥ meaning a group of gaṇa-s collectively are known as
gaṇeṣaḥ (plural), as vaiṣya community are inclined towards gaṇa-s, they are
collectively capable of earning money or property, not individually. Vasu-s
are eight gaṇa-s in number, rudra-s are eleven, Aditya are twelve,
vishvedeva are thirteen - all these are sons of Vishva. Or Vishvadevaḥ
means ' All deva-gaṇa-s' i.e. all deva-s. In this way there are forty-nine
marut-s (सप्तसप्त गणाः, 7 x 7 = 49 - as given in Gita Press, Hindi

Āchārya mentioned 'eleven rudra-s'. These eleven rudra-s are mentioned in
Mahābhārata when Yudhisṭhira asks Bhiṣma questions about sacred mantra-s

“Aja. Ekapada, Ahivradhna, the unvanquished Pinakin, Rita Pitrirupa, the
three-eyed Maheswara, Vrishakapi, Sambhu, Havana, and Iswara–these are the
celebrated Rudras, eleven in number, who are the lords of all the worlds.
Even these eleven high-souled ones have been mentioned as a hundred in the
Satarudra (of the Vedas)”. (MBH 13:CL)
​ will again try to understand whether if rudra is really born from VP

VP 1.8.1: Śrī Parāśara jī said - O Great Muni! I have described you
tāmasa-sarga created by brahmā jī. Now I will describe you rudra-sarga,
hence listen [carefully].

VP 1.8.2:  ​In the beginning of kalpa, Brahmājī, for the sake of creation,
contemplated to create a son like him and hence a dark-blue complexioned
baby (nilalohita-varṇa) manifested (prādurbhāva) in Brahmā's lap.

Note here that Brahmājī did not create rudra. He contemplated and a baby
manifested. Just like VP says that even Brahmājī is unborn and so does
kurma purāṇa, rudra is unborn as present in unmanifested form.

There is another way of answering the creation of deities. In the same VP,
creation is mentioned.

VP 1.2.1-2: srI parASarajI said – the one who is the cause of brahmA,
viShNu (hari) {deity of preservation} and Sankara and assumes the forms of
brahmA, viShNu {deity of preservation} and Sankara for the creation,
preservation and destruction of the world (or universe). And who helps his
devotees to swim the ocean of samsAra i.e. transcend his devotees beyond
samsAra (this transcient world), that changeless, pure, indestructible,
paramAtmA, always one and uniform (ekarasa), completely victorious
(sarvavijayI), my salutations to bhagavAn vAsudeva viShNu.

VP 1.2.3: Inspite of being one, appears as in many forms, is of the nature
of gross-subtle, is unmanifested and is also manifest, and is the cause of
liberation of his devotees, I bow to that bhagavAn viShNu.

VP 1.2.4: The one who is the root cause of the creation, preservation and
destruction of this world, I bow to that viShNu paramAtmA.

There are many verses that can be quoted from VP 1.2 and VP 1.22.33-51
which describe creation and that all three Brahmā, Viṣṇu, Rudra are all
parts of Śrī Viṣṇu which is nirmala jñāna svarūpa and not caturbhuja Viṣṇu.

*viShNu bhagavAn is the most nearest svarUpa of brahman*

viShNu purANa says,

VP 1.22.61: all powerful viShNu is the para-svarUpa (higher form) of
brahman and is manifested who is contemplated by yOgI-s before entering
into yOga.

VP 1.22.62: O muni-s ! Whose mind is properly concentrated with continuous
practice, attains 'Avalamban-yukta sabIja mahAyOga'. [1] O the fortunate
one! the sarvabrahmamaya [2] [viShNu bhagavAn] is the foremost among all
the parASakti and is the most nearest mUrta-brahmasvarUpa (manifested form
of brahman)

[1] yOga attained by taking help of name and form i.e. manifested form of

Avalamban means support. Here it means that those who meditate properly
with one-pointedness on the form of viShNu attains union. Since these
yOgI-s take support of a 'form', hence their achievement is called as
Avalamban-yukta. sabija-samādhi is explained in by Bhagavān Veda Vyāsa
Patanjali Yoga Sūtra-s. It is a form of samādhi in which subject-object
difference remains. Madhusūdan SArasvatī in chapter 6 comments that these
types of various samādhi-s like savitarka, nirvitarka, savichara,
nirvichara, etc are abhyāsa only.

[2] sarvabrahma-maya means 'completely identified with brahman'

Source: Gita Press, Hindi translation, page 109

Ādi Śankara has not further explained the word 'rudraḥ paśūnām', but this
may well be plural in form, where collective effort is necessary to bring
about desired result as described in Br. Up. 1.4.12. Āchārya in BG 9.25 has
used vinayakaḥ and mātrikā in plural form. Bhagavadpāda didn't translate
'Īśā' as 'rudra' in his Gītā Bhāśya on verse BG 11.15.

Perhaps, Viṣṇu Sahasranāma Bhāśya is not taken into account and based on
just one verse the conclusion is taken into account.. If VSN commentary is
taken into account, then there is no confusion.

I think there is difference in ideologies

1. There is one formless Nirguṇa Brahman, but Saguṇa Brahman is only one -
Caturbhuja Viṣṇu
2. There is one formless Nirguṇa Brahman, Saguṇa Brahman can manifest in
different forms. Both Viṣṇu and Rudra/Śiva are one as Brahman.

In 1st view - The hierarchy starts from Saguṇa Brahman, whereas in 2nd the
hierarchy starts from other jīva-s created by Saguṇa Brahman. 2.b. would to
be even disregard hierarchy by saying that all are Brahman and one can
meditate on any object thinking it as a form of Brahman.



On Thu, Aug 18, 2016 at 1:49 PM, V Subrahmanian via Advaita-l <
advaita-l at lists.advaita-vedanta.org> wrote:

> On Thu, Aug 18, 2016 at 11:33 AM, D Gayatri via Advaita-l <
> advaita-l at lists.advaita-vedanta.org> wrote:
> >
> >
> >
> > 3. None of this section contradicts advaita-vedAnta. It is perfectly
> > compatible with advaita-vedAnta because it says there is in reality
> > only one purusha.
> >

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