[Advaita-l] Result of karma where result is not mentioned

Venkatraghavan S agnimile at gmail.com
Fri Dec 25 06:58:32 CST 2015


While both pUrva mImAmsa and vedAnta agree that akaraNe pratyavAya:, there
is a difference in what causes pratyavAya.

Firstly, there is a श्रुति वाक्यं that supports this - अकरणे प्रत्यवायः ।

There is smriti support too -
अकुर्वन् विहितं कर्म निन्दितं च समाचरन्।
प्रसज्यंश्च इन्द्रियार्थेषु नरः पतनमृच्छति॥

The pUrva mImAmsaka says that the non performance of नित्यकर्म *produces*
प्रत्यवायं, we say that this is impossible.

अकरणं being अभावरूपं, cannot produce sin, which is भावरूपं. This is not
possible. From a logical perspective, existence of the cause is transferred
to the effect. A non existent cause cannot create an existent effect. That
is the असत्कार्यवाद of the न्याय philosopher, which we vehemently deny
(माण्डूक्य कारीका).

Our experience also tells us that something cannot be created from nothing.
Moreover, Krishna also says न असतः विद्यते भावः in Chapter 2. In छान्दोगय
6.22, it is asked कथं असतः सज्जायेत? So from अनुमान, अनुभव, स्मृति and
श्रुति प्रमाण, it is proven that the non performance of नित्यकर्म does not
produce पापं.

Essentially what the pUrva pakshi is arguing that non-existence becomes
existence, or existence becomes non-existence. That is totally impossible
because it is contradictory to all pramaNAs.

But the vedAnta position has to be reconciled with अकरणे प्रत्यवाय  श्रुति.

Shankara analyses this in Taittariya ShIkshA valli BhAshyam.

In 2 ways:
1) When nitya karma is done, regular cleaning of prArabdha pApam (दुरित
क्षयं) occurs. When नित्यकर्म is not done, pApam which would have otherwise
been removed, gets accumulated regularly. Therefore अकरणे प्रत्यवायः, not
production of new pApam.
2) Suppose nitya karma is not done, at the time when it should have been
done, some other karma will have to be done. Nobody can remain quiet. It
will invariably be either adharma or para dharma. Both of these will be
bhAva rUpam only. Both adharma and para dharmam will produce pApam.

Therefore, vedAnta agrees with pUrva mImAmsa that अकरणे प्रत्यवाय, but
unlike it, we say it is not due to the *production* of pApam because of non

On 25 Dec 2015 15:05, "Praveen R. Bhat via Advaita-l" <
advaita-l at lists.advaita-vedanta.org> wrote:

> Namaste Swamiji,
> On Thu, Dec 24, 2015 at 10:32 PM, श्रीमल्ललितालालितः <
> lalitaalaalitah at lalitaalaalitah.com> wrote:
> >
> > ​No difference. You just went for sUtra-s, while I mentioned
> adhikaraNa-s.
> >
> Okay,  thanks.
> > I'll try to write something.
> > But, it will be better if you could present your present understanding of
> > three adhikaraNa-s and the problems you are facing.
> > Then I will be able to help you understand the parts which are tricky or
> > unfamiliar.​
> >
> Here is what I understand:
>    - All karmas given as vidhis in the Shruti have a result, because Vedas
>    do not prescribe actions without result. (Interestingly, while going
>    through the sutras that lead to adhikaraNa 4.3.5, I found that the
>    exception to this is when the reward is in relation to the materials;
> then
>    it is arthavAda).
>    - If the result is not directly given or mentioned in the proximity,
>    they are to be inferred by connection with remotely mentioned result.
>    - There are karmas which may be subsidiary to a main karma which have
>    the same result as the main result, being part of it.
>    - If the result is not found to be connected elsewhere, it is svargaH,
>    by ekavAkyatA, since it (happiness) is desired by all.
>    - Although this is discussed in the context of kAmyakarma, the same
>    applies to nityanaimittika karma also.
> The difficulty right now is the last point, (assuming the others are
> correct) that whether the inference is correct in relation to nityakarma
> too. The next question is what is the Vedanta view w.r.t. this.
> Would it also be possible to cover the flip side of this, which is akaraNe
> pratyavAya shrUyate as says Bhashyakara; is it traceable to Shruti vAkya/
> pUrvamImAMsA?
> gurupAdukAbhyAm,
> --Praveen R. Bhat
> /* Through what should one know That owing to which all this is known!
> [Br.Up. 4.5.15] */
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