[Advaita-l] Pramana for adhyaropa apavada

V Subrahmanian v.subrahmanian at gmail.com
Fri May 10 01:00:33 CDT 2013

In the Veda we find two sets of adhyAropa and apavAda.  The Veda describes
who or what a jIva is: someone with a body-mind complex, kartRtva
bhoktRtva, aspiring for puruShArtha, going to various lokas and returning,
remaining in samsAra, etc.  This is the adhyAropa.  We say so because the
Veda itself also says 'tat tvam asi, (chandogya upanishad which is what
kShetrajnam chApi mAm viddhi (13th chapter BG) is,  Brahmavid brahmaiva,
vimuktashcha vimuchyate...etc. These sentences show the entity who was
described in the above red highlighted lines as removed of the jIvatva
totally and declare it as none other than Brahman.  So, by arthApatti, it
is held that the jivatva-describing parts are adhyAropa for there is a
jIvatva-denying, apavAda, sentences that are encountered later.

With respect to Ishwara too, the corresponding adhyaropa is the description
of an entity as related to the jIva-jagat, endowed with attributes such a
the cause of the world, jIva-jkagadantaryAmitvam, karmaophala dAtRtvam
etc.  Without exception, all the attributes of Brahman are either dependent
on jiva or the jagat.  That shows that Brahman cannot afford to have any
attribute as legitimately its own.  Such dependence on something else to be
called Iswara is not the ultimate reality the Shruti presents . The Veda
also describes the entity as bereft of all these attributes as nirguNam
niShkriyam, asangam, etc. where it is shown as totally unrelated to
anything.  If such denial sentences, apavAda, are taken into account, it
would have to be understood that the shruti wants to present the Reality as
One entity that is pure consciousness, existence, infinite with nothing as
a second.

It is based on the study of the Upanishads on such lines did the rule
'adhyAropa apavAdAbhyAm niShprapancham prapanchyate' emerge in the
sampradAya, that Shankara cites in the Bh.Gita bhashyam, in addition to the
direct shruti vAkyams and yukti.  SampradAya is an additional strengthening
factor to present the system. The Bh.Gita and other texts too have the same
pattern described above.  Thus, the shruti is the pramANa for the
adhyAropa-apavAda nyAya.  That nyAya can be seen employed in worldly
affairs too in various forms.


On Fri, May 10, 2013 at 12:11 AM, <rajaramvenk at gmail.com> wrote:

> Hare Krishna. If we take as absolutely true the statements that describe
> qualities of ishwara, then we will have to interpret statements that negate
> those qualities as referring to material qualities as dualists do. On the
> other hand if we take as absolutely true the statements that describe
> brahman as without attributes of any kind, then we have to treat all
> descriptions of qualities as true only in the relative realm as advaita
> does. I would like to know if there is a basis for advaita approach other
> than this being an unbroken and ancient lineage.
> Sent from my BlackBerry® wireless device
> _______________________________________________
> Archives: http://lists.advaita-vedanta.org/archives/advaita-l/
> http://blog.gmane.org/gmane.culture.religion.advaita
> To unsubscribe or change your options:
> http://lists.advaita-vedanta.org/cgi-bin/listinfo/advaita-l
> For assistance, contact:
> listmaster at advaita-vedanta.org

More information about the Advaita-l mailing list