[Advaita-l] Saakshii-Jiiva-Iswara Analysis-II

kuntimaddi sadananda kuntimaddisada at yahoo.com
Sun Mar 17 06:23:48 CDT 2013

Analysis of
Saakshii, Jiiva And Iswara
Based on
Vichaarasaagara of Nischaladaasa - II
Jiiva-Iswara aikyam is not possible says
purvapakshii or objector. Why? Swabhaava viruddham – The intrinsic nature of
jiiava and Iswara are completely different. a) jiiva has five primary
limitations - panca kleshaas –Ignorance (avidya), ego (ahankaara), likes (raaga),
dislikes (dwesha) and fear of death (abhinivesha), while Iswara has no such limitatons.
b) vyaapakatvat bhedaH – Iswara is all pervading and jiiva is localized entity.
c) jiiva has limitation due to divisions, space-wise, time-wise and/or
object-wise (paricchinnatvam). For example, there are many jiivas each limiting
other.  They are also verities of jiivas providing
- sajaati, vijaati, and swagata bedhas – that limits each jiiva. Bodies, minds
and intellects are many. Each body has its special jiivatma or soul that owns
the body. d) Experiences of jiivas and Iswara are also different. 
The objector anticipating the possible
answer to his objection by an advaitin, states that his answer will not remedy
the objection raised.  The purvapakshi
says – according to advaita, the identity relation between jiiva and Iswara (jiivaatma-paramaatma
aikya bodhaka vaakyam or mahaavakyam) has to be understood not by direct word
meaning (vaachyaartham) but by indicatory meaning (lakshyaartham) using bhaaga-tyaaga
lakshaNa that is by discarding the superficial contradictory attributes and
retaining only the essential attributes that can be equated as in, this is that
Devadatta.  The direct meaning of the
equation (vaachyaartham) designates only ego or ahankaara associated with BMI,
which has inferior attributes. At that level aikyam or identity cannot be established.
On the other hand, the indicatory meaning or lakshyaartha for jiiva is different
when jiiva says I am – it refers to the witnessing consciousness, saakshii.
Therefore jiivaatma is nothing but Saakshii as per advaita. That saakshii, as
per advaita, is ekam or only one – thus there is only one saakshii in all
beings. That Saakshii does not have different experiences. Saakshii, in fact, does
not experience anything. It is, therefore, limitation-free or panca klesha
rahitaH and all alone - ekaH. Objector is calling ahankara as jiivatma – but
the real jiivatma is saakshii. – saakshii is pure - this is what advaita says –
thus objector himself provides a possible answer to his objection by the
advaitin. Then he refutes this possible answer in the following. 
The objector says: The above position of
advaitin cannot be accepted for two reasons.
1.  There
is no saakshii or witnessing consciousness at all different from jiiva (jiiva
atirikta saakshii naasti). What is there is only ahankaara rupaa jiiva or
egotistical jiiva. During one’s lifetime no one is aware or experienced any
witnessing consciousness.  Besides there
is no pramaaNa or proof that saakshii exists.
2.  In
case if advaitin still thinks that the saakshii exists then that saakshii
cannot be single, and can only be plural. Scripture in fact says, every tree
(body) has two birds –dvaa suparnaa sayujaa sakhaayaa – one is jiiva bird and
other is Ishwara bird-says Mundaka Up. – clearly separating the two. Therefore
everybody or every body has one saakshii of its own. Hence saakshii-s are
plural, since BMIs are plural.  How can
the pluralistic saakshiis be identical to non-pluralistic Iswara, unless of
course they are part of Iswara as in VishiShTaadvaita? Therefore mahaavaakya
with advaitic interpretation involving identity relation is not possible – says
the objector. 
Short answer: Saakshii
exists: Mind and its attributes are objectifiable entities or known entities.
BMIs are objects of awareness. 1. Mind cannot objectify itself and its
attributes as the mind is jadam or inert. 2. Sense organs also cannot objectify
the mind. Therefore, there must be a conscious entity that is something other
than the mind and its attributes should be there to objectify them. Therefore
only a conscious entity, saakshii must exist to objectify these so that one can
be aware of the existence of the mind and the sense organs. When I say “I” I
mean not the objectifiable entity, but the subject I which cannot be
objectified. Only thing that cannot be objectified is saakshii, since all
objectifications become witnessed entities or saakshyham not saakshii or
witnessing entity. Saakshii has to be chaitanya vastu or conscious entity. No
one is aware of or can be aware of saakshii, since saakshii is a subject – I -
which cannot be objectified for one to be aware of.  All saakshyams or witnessed entities are
objects, which are inert and that include the BMIs too. That which is
independent of all BMIs – that conscious entity, saakshii, is single since
consciousness cannot be divided. Hence saakshii exists since without the
existence of a subject existence of any object cannot be established. Saakshii
being independent and self-conscious entity its existence is independent of BMI
even though BMI is required for its recognition. It is like the moon is
required to recognize the presence of the sunlight where the moon is. Thus
saakshii exists and is single even when BMIs are plural – like sunlight is
single even when moon and many other plants exist in the sky revealing the
presence of sunlight during the night. This is the conclusion of a Vedanta.
Hence objections have no basis, responds an advaitin. More details follows.
Continued in the next post
Hari Om

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