[Advaita-l] Advaitic Parabrahman in sUtasamhitA
dvnsarma at gmail.com
Mon Aug 12 18:45:54 CDT 2013
There are hundreds of other texts declaring Vishnu's paaramya.
One has to take all of these with a pinch of salt.
There is what is called व्रतानामुत्तमं व्रतम्
nyaaya which applies in such situations.
On Mon, Aug 12, 2013 at 11:44 PM, V Subrahmanian
<v.subrahmanian at gmail.com>wrote:
> Bhagavan Veda vyAsa says in the sUta samhitA which is a part of the skanda
> purANam that Shiva is the Parabrahman and Vishnu is a functionary who
> functions under Him. Shiva can even take away the power of Vishnu.
> In the sUtasamhitA of the skandapurANa 2nd chapter Veda VyAsa says:
> इत्युक्त्वा भगवान्रुद्रः स्वं पूर्णं रूपमाविशत् ।
> नापश्यन्त ततो रुद्रं देवा विष्ग्णुपुरोगमाः ॥ ११
> [Having said that Lord Rudra entered His Full form. The gods Vishnu, etc.
> could not see Rudra then.]
> अथर्वशिरसा देवमस्तुवंश्चोर्ध्वबाहवः ।
> अन्यैर्नानाविधैः सूक्तैः श्रीमत्पञ्चाक्षरेण च ॥ १३
> [The gods, with their hands raised above their heads, sang the praise of
> the Lord Rudra with the 'atharvashiras' and other sUktas and also the
> I found one devanagari version of the Atharvashiropanishad:
> and found the sentences/mantras cited by Vidyaranya in this version.
> Vidyaranya comments for the second cited verse: 'with the mantra 'yo vai
> rudra' etc. Thus says the shruti 'ततो देवा रुद्रं नापश्यन् । ते देवा रुद्रं
> ध्यायन्ति । ते देवा ऊर्ध्वबाहवः स्तुवन्ति । यो वै रुद्रः स भगवान्’ इत्यादि
> । [These are cited from the Atharvashiras upanishad and the foot note gives
> the numbers as 1,3. ]
> Vidyaranya cites other mantras from the Atharvashiras like 'अहमेकः
> प्रथममासं वर्तामि च भविष्यामि च नान्यः कश्चिन्मत्तो व्यतिरिक्तः’ [’I
> (Rudra) the One was in the beginning, and continue to be (the One) and will
> ever be (One) in the future and none else is there apart from Me.] Mantra
> no. 1. This mantra is almost reproduced in the puraaNa as verse no.8.
> In ch.1 verse 54 is:
> नमः सोमाय रुद्राय शंकराय महात्मने ।
> ब्रह्मविष्णुसुरेन्द्राणां ध्यानगम्याय शूलिने ॥
> [Obeisance to Soma, Rudra, Shankara the MahAtman. He is the shUlin who
> deserves to be known/attained thru meditation by brahmA, vishnu, indra.]
> For this verse, while commenting Vidyaranya cites the 'vAyavIyasamhitA':
> ’रुद्दुःखं दुःखहेतुं च विद्रावयति नः प्रभुः । रुद्र इत्युच्यते तस्माच्छिवः
> परमकारणम् ॥ [The verse calls Shiva the Supreme Cause]. This is the
> yaugikArtha, etymological meaning given by the vAyavIyasamhitA (which is
> different from the rUDhyartha where the very word 'rudra' is popular in
> reference to Shiva]. Vidyaranya also cites the Kenopanishad where there
> is the story of the gods arrogating to themselves the victory they had over
> the asuras. Vidyaranya says: Owing to the blessings of Parashiva alone the
> devas had vanquished the asuras. ... Shiva, with a view to protect them
> from the fall that would surely come to them owing to their arrogance
> appeared before them in a splendorous form...
> Incidentally, in the Kenopanishad bhAShyam, for the term 'umA haimavati'
> occurring in the upanishad, Shankara writes: umA, the daughter of HimavAn,
> who is ever present with the 'sarvajna Ishwara'. Seeing this one can
> (wrongly) conclude that Shankara is pro-shaiva for He calls Ishwara a
> sarvajna, evidently holding Shiva to be the Supreme.
> In the same chapter of the sUtasamhitA (skandapurana) occurs this verse:
> अनन्ता वै द्विजा वेदा वेदार्थोऽपि द्विजोतामाः ।
> अनन्तो वेदवेद्यस्य शंकरस्य शिवस्य तु ।
> मायया न स्वरूपेण द्विजा हा देववैभवम् ॥ ३९
> [Oh dvijas ! the vedas are infinite and the meaning too is infinite. The
> divine splendor of Shankara, Shiva, who is the One to be known through the
> Veda, is infinite, through mAyA, and not in His Actual nature. ]
> For this Vidyaranya cites the Taittiriya samhitA 126.96.36.199 mantra 'एक एव
> रुद्रो न द्वितीयाय तस्थ ’ [In this anuvAka appears the famous 'त्र्यंबकं
> यजामहे ...’ couplet. ]
> sAyana who is admitted by some people as Vidyaranya has different view on
> the 'Shiva gaining strength from Vishnu' idea, as for instance, in the
> अस्य प्रसादलेशस्य लवलेशलवेन तु
> इदं विष्णुपदं लब्धं त्वया नान्येन हेतुना । १४
> अन्येषामपि सर्वेषां पदमस्य प्रसादतः।
> अनेनेदं जगत्सर्वं विना न भवति स्वयम् ॥ १५
> In these verses, VedavyAsa informs Vishnu through the medium of
> Nandikeshvara that Shiva is the supreme Lord of the creation and vishnu has
> attained his position only through an infinitesimal part of Shiva's power.
> All others too derive their positions/power only from Shiva and therefore
> the entire creation cannot simply subsist on its own without Shiva.
> Just before this sUta the narrator of the purANa addresses the
> naimisharanya people and says:
> पुरा विष्णुर्जगन्नाथः पुराणः पुरुषोत्तमः
> मायया मोहितः साक्षात् शिवस्य परमात्मनः ॥ ४
> अहमेव जगत्कर्त मय्येवेदं जगत्स्थितम्
> मत्समश्चाधिकश्चापि नास्ति सर्वत्र सर्वदा ॥ ५
> मम शक्तिविलासोऽयं जगत्सर्वं चराचरम् ।
> अहमेव समाराध्यः सर्वदा सर्वजन्तुभिः ॥ ६
> इत्यहंमानसंच्छन्नः स्वात्मभूतं महेश्वरम् ।
> अविज्ञाय अंबिकानाथं अनन्तानन्दचिद्घनम् ॥ ७
> In these verses from 1 to 9 Veda Vyasa gives an account of how once upon a
> time Vishnu, being deluded by Shiva's mAyaa, started entertaining the idea
> that He (Vishnu) was the creator, sustainer of the universe and arrogated
> to Himself all the worship all people should offer. He also thought that
> there is none in creation equal or greater than Him. As a result of such
> egoistic thinking, not knowing that Shiva was his indweller, Vishnu
> bossedover all others including BrahmA, etc. Shiva came to know of
> this and
> captured Vishnu's shakti and deluded him further.
> After this follows how Nandi imparted the true wisdom to Vishnu by showing
> Him that Shiva was indeed the All and that all others were subordinate to
> Shiva. Followed by this everyone including Vishnu worshiped Shiva and sang
> His praise. The long praise ends in verse 48 where Veda Vyasa writes:
> भक्तचित्तसमासीन ब्रह्मविष्णुशिवात्मक । ४८
> The sUtasamhitA has a commentary by name तात्पर्यदीपिका by Sri VidyAraNya
> SwAmin. [ A study of the commentary (the entire book is now available in
> new print in the Jayalakshmi Indological shop, Chennai) is very useful for
> those who would like to get a good understanding of Vedanta, especially
> Advaita. ] For the verses on Vishnu's delusion he writes:
> ननु ’अहमेव जगत्कर्ता’ इति जीवेश्वरतादात्म्यप्रतिपादकमिदं महावाक्यं
> तदनुसन्धानेऽस्य कथं व्यामोह इत्यत आह - इत्यहंमानसन्छन्न इति ।
> Objection: The expression 'I am indeed the creator of the universe' is
> instructive of the mahAvAkya that declares the identity of the jIva and the
> Ishwara. How can the contemplation of this declaration amount to
> arrogance? To this question Veda VyAsa replies: being covered by the
> egoitistic thinking....
> Vidyaranya writes: by giving up the vAchyArtha and taking up the
> lakShyArtha there would remain just the Pure Bliss Consciousness.
> Contemplating on this is no offence. The case with Vishnu was that it was
> filled with the egotistic delusion. That is the reason why Veda VyAsa says
> this is foul. Then, at the conclusion of the prayers of the deva-s, for
> the line भक्तचित्तसमासीन ब्रह्मविष्णुशिवात्मक । ४८ Vidyaranya writes: the
> deva-s are praying to Shiva to pardon them for anyone arrogating to oneself
> the thinking 'I alone am the Creator'. Since Shiva is the sarvAntaryAmi of
> everyone, including that of Vishnu, the Veda VyAsa expression
> भक्तचित्तसमासीन is justified ('IshvaraH sarvabhUtAnAm hRddeshe arjuna
> tiShThati...BG 18th ch.) For the Veda VyAsa expression
> ब्रह्मविष्णुशिवात्मक Vidyaranya cites the MahAnArAyaNa UpaniShad
> vAkyam:'स ब्रह्मा स शिवः स हरिः’ इति श्रुतिः .
> This shows that such a reading/sentence (in the nArAyaNa sUktam) has
> existed even at the time of Vidyaranya and what is more, it is corroborated
> by Veda vyAsa's words in the sutasamhita (skanda PurAna). In other
> words, Veda VyAsa is basing the shruti pramANa for his writing.
> There Rudra, as Shiva, is shown as the Supreme who can even make Vishnu
> powerless, Also, in the sanskrit book 'gunjAgarvabhanjanam' the author
> cites a shruti passage: 'somaH pavate....janito'ta viShNoh..' and says
> that acc. to this Vishnu is born from Shiva and since born, has an end too,
> as this passage says: ' brahmaNo'nte munisreShTha mAyAyAm lIyate jagat.
> tadA viShNushcha rudrashcha prakRtau vilayam gatau' [At the end of the
> tenure of brahmA, oh muni, the world will lapse into mAyA (prakRti). then
> vishnu and rudra will also lapse into it.'
> Evidently in this case the vishnu and rudra are only those holding the
> functions/posts and not Para Brahman. We have to keep this in mind. In
> the sutasamhita case Shiva is Para brahman and vishnu and brahmA and rudra
> are only functionaries. It will be interesting to note this verse of
> Saundaryalahari of Shankara:
> SAUNDARYALAHARI - VERSE 26
> विरिञ्चिः पञ्चत्वं व्रजति हरिराप्नोति विरतिं
> विनाशं कीनाशो भजति धनदो याति निधनम्।
> वितन्द्री माहोन्द्री विततिरपि संमीलितदृशा
> महासंहारेऽस्मिन् विहरति सति त्वत्पतिरसौ॥
> *viriñciḥ pañcatvaṁ vrajati harirāpnoti viratiṁ*
> *vināśaṁ kīnāśo bhajati dhanado yāti nidhanam |*
> *vitandrī māhondrī vitatirapi saṁmīlitadṛśā*
> *mahāsaṁhāre'smin viharati sati tvatpatirasau ||*
> *viriñci* – Brahmā; *pañcatvaṁ vrajati* – ceases to exit; *hari āpnoti
> viratiṁ* - Viṣṇu also attains His end; *vināśaṁ kīnāśo bhajati* – Yama also
> gets destroyed; *dhanado yāti nidhanam* – Kubera also meets with his
> end; *vitandrī
> māhondrī vitatirapi* – active Indra with other gods; *saṁmīlitadṛśā* -
> become functionless with their eyes closed; *mahāsaṁhāre asmin* – even in
> that great dissolution; *viharati *– enjoying with You; *sati tvat patir
> asau *– faithful Consort of Śiva.
> “O! Faithful Consort of Śiva! At the time of great dissolution, Brahmā,
> Viṣṇu, Yama, Kubera, Indra and other gods cease to exist. But Your Consort
> Śiva alone enjoys with You even during the great dissolution.”
> My intention is not to rake up any hatred amongst devotees of either Shiva
> or Vishnu. I just wanted to point to Veda Vyasa's words and the
> atharvashira upanishat (VedavyAsa mentioning the name of this upanishat in
> the suta samhita) and swami Vidyaranya's comments on the Parabrahman nature
> of Shiva. Advaitins have no problem in accepting any deity as parabrahman
> since the primary-secondary bhAva is kept in mind while thinking of
> parabrahman and other devatA-s.
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