[Advaita-l] Vikalpa, Savikalpa, and Nirvikalpa
bhaskar.yr at in.abb.com
Fri Aug 24 04:10:43 CDT 2012
Humble sAshtAnga praNAms Sri Vidya prabhuji
With your kind permission, I shall try to share my thoughts on your
observation prabhuji :
The crux of the matter is the following. The vedAnta vAkya janita jnAna,
is nirvikalpaka" takes place in the antaHkaraNa. It may not need a prior
of nirvikalpa samAdhi via yogAbhyAsa in order to take birth, agreed.
> advaita paramArtha jnAna (or dawn of Atmaikatva) can happen to an able
adhikAri through shAstra vAkya. But before pursuing this vedAnta mArga,
he has to complete sAdhana chatushtaya. As you know this has been
discussed in the very first sUtra of brahma sUtra. Yes, as you have
rightly observed, an anadhikAri though get a 'knowledge' that shruti is
teaching us 'brahman is nirvikalpaka' that would not be a paramArtha jnAna
of the jnAni. At the best, it is a knowledge of any other mortal subject.
However, what needs to be understood is that when it is born in an
antaHkaraNa that has not been
trained in control through prior yogAbhyAsa, then it is still a jnAna that
as vishaya and the jnAna-jneya-jnAtR distinction is not yet dissolved.
> yes, that is the reason why vedAnta mArga prefers nityAnityavastu
vivekAdi sAdhana chatushtaya for the sAdhaka-s before trying to pursue
his sAdhana in jnAna mArga. Otherwise, every venka, seena, matya who
have bhAsha jnAna, can comfortably understand intellectually what is the
purport of veda and vedAnta. So, IMHO, for controlling the antaHkaraNa
and to purify that antaHkaraNa and to train and make it suitable for
receiving vedAnta jnAna sAdhana chatushtaya recommended, and after that
sharavaNAdi 'direct sAdhana-s' advised. However, yOgAbhyAsa like yama
niyama, Asana, prANAyAma, prtyAhAra very much required to keep us in good
Sure, one can argue that the mithyAtva of the distinction has been
understood at this stage. But it
is still possible for an antaHkaraNa to intellectually understand "brahma
and it is possible for that same antaHkaraNa to intellectually understand
vAkya "ayam AtmA brahma", but the antaHkaraNa still remains, establishing
subject-hood for itself and objectifying brahma vishaya jnAna.
> prabhuji kindly clarify do you mean to say here brahma jnAna to have
its complete effect, antaHkaraNa should go in the jnAni, or tAdAtmya jnAna
should be sublated?? For the ajnAni-s, a paramArtha jnAni too has to
maintain his own subject-hood and he has to do 'vishayeekaraNa' of the
brahma vishaya jnAna to teach it to others is it not?? So, IMHO,
antaHkaraNa tAdAtmyabuddhi only will get sublated and antaHkaraNa would
not be effaced.
After such jnAna has taken birth, does the antaHkaraNa in which this jnAna
was born vanish as it were, in
an infinite ocean of non-duality? Or does it persist, trying to
"finiticize" the infinite? If
the former, then this is Atma-saMsthiti, which I submit, is really nothing
what is called nirvikalpa samAdhi by those who take a more yogic flavour
personal approach to sAdhana.
> My doubt here is can this Atma saMsthiti can be achieved without
experiencing the yOgic flavoured nirvikalpa samAdhi?? If no, then we have
to say 'after' shAstra vAkya janita jnAna, there needs to be do something
or experience something to 'literally' establish oneself in Atma without
the trace of individual self-hood. As you know Atmaikatva jnAna is not
any vyavahArAteeta jnAna or avasthAteeta jnAna it is only bheda nivrutti
(bAdha of bheda jnAna), shankara explains this vidyA phala in geeta
bhAshya beautifully : kriyAkArakaphalabheda buddhiravidyA Atmani nitya
pravruttA, 'mama karma', ahaM kartA, amushyai phalAyedaM karma karishyAmi
iteeyamavidyA anAdi kAla pravruttA, asyA avidyAyAH nivartakaM
'ayamahamasmi kevalOkartA akriyOphalO na mattOnyOsti kashchit'
ityevaMrUpamAtmavishayaM jnAnamutpadyamAnaM, karmapravruttihetubhutAyAH
bheda buddhenivartakatvAt'(geeta bhAshya 18-66). And for this jnAna to
happen shankara recommends yajna, dAna, tapas, shamAdi shatsampatti and
veda vAkya shravaNAdi sAdhana under the guidance of shrOtreeya
brahmanishTa guru. And the phala of this vAkya janita jnAna would not
have to wait for subsequent step. vAkyArthajnAnasamakAle eva tu
paryavasitO bhavati, clarifies shankara in mundaka bhAshya.
If the latter, I submit that such a person in whose
antaHkaraNa the jnAna has taken birth still only understands the
brahman as a vikalpa; s/he only understands the nirguNatva of brahman as a
s/he has still not grasped that s/he IS brahman; it is not yet
> kindly tell us what needs to be done for this karatalAmalaka of
brahmajnAna to happen. Whether sAdhaka has to experience nirvikalpa
samAdhi in which state the antaHkaraNAdi upAdhi-s 'literally' absent??
According to shankara mOksha is nothing but ajnAna nivAraNa, mOksha it NOT
an achievable goal afresh as it is our own svarUpa, hence shankara
clarifies : na cha ajnAna vyatirekeNa mOkshasya vyavadhAnAnantaraM
kalpayitum shakyaM, nityatvAnmOkshasya, sAdhaka svarUpAvyatirekAccha. So,
till we achieve that karatalAmalaka stage, we have to continue to do this
shravaNAdi sAdhana, but once this anubhavAtmaka jnAna dawns (not mere
intellectual understanding) there needs to be nothing to do for the jnAni
to experience this Atmaikatva in a separate state. That shankara clarifies
in the next elaborated bhAshya in bruhadAraNyaka (1-4-10) :
evamAtmavishayaM vijnAnaM yatkAlaM, tatkAla eva tad vishya ajnAna
tirObhAvaHsyAt. It is very clear that there is no gap between jnAna &
mOksha for the able adhikAri.
Why, even the brahmasUtra has an adhikaraNa that begins, AsInas saMbhavAt,
in the conclusion to which, Sankara bhagavatpAda unambiguously states that
padmAsana and other postures are taught in the yoga
SAstra as aids in the process of vicAra. And it is not just Asana there;
dhyAna is also
given its due place.
> IMHO, we have to take this yOga practice till pratyAhAra because
dhAraNa, dhyAna & samAdhi terms have different contextual meaning in
advaita vedAnta, jnAna mArga sAdhana.
I submit that the state of moksha that is desired by the jijnAsu is one
that is beyond
words, all words, even the words that constitute the vedAnta vAkya. As
find it amusingly surprising that many among those who say they understand
seem to have such an anathema for the terms samAdhi and nirvikalpa put
> I agree with you prabhuji, mOksha is beyond words. But we have the
AchAryOpadesha which promptly tries to explain us the inexplicable. As
you know mere terms like samAdhi, nirvikalpa and nirvikalpa samAdhi wont
trouble us, trouble starts only when we try to link this to the
patanjali's ashtAnga yOga & indispensability of samAdhi anubhava in a mind
inert state for the advaita's ekamevAdviteeya jnAna.
Your humble servant
Hari Hari Hari Bol!!!
pps. It would help list members if responses to multiple related points in
thread can be consolidated into one or two posts, rather than spread
> prabhuji, once in a blue moon day I would get time to write mails, I
may not be able to participate regularly, whenever I get time, I would try
to write something, which may result in multiple mails in a single day!!
What is your suggestion to me prabhuji??
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