[Advaita-l] Sankhya and Yoga can give Moksha?

Sunil Bhattacharjya sunil_bhattacharjya at yahoo.com
Sun Apr 29 15:19:15 CDT 2012


With your vast knowledge will you like to give your comment on the following?

Did anywhere Sankara say that "Sankhya" does not mean the same thing as the  "Viveka-khyati"?Or 
Did Sankara mention anywhere about
 term "Viveka-khyati"? 
Sankara must have been aware that the Sankhya terminology is not always the same as the Vedic / Vedantic terminology and that the Tanmatra of Sankhya is the same as Sukshma-bhoota of Veda/Vedanta. Moreover Sankara was an authority on Sankhya also and his Jayamangala is the best proof of that.

Sunil KB

 From: V Subrahmanian <v.subrahmanian at gmail.com>
To: Sunil Bhattacharjya <sunil_bhattacharjya at yahoo.com>; A discussion group for Advaita Vedanta <advaita-l at lists.advaita-vedanta.org> 
Sent: Sunday, April 29, 2012 2:47 AM
Subject: Re: [Advaita-l] Sankhya and Yoga can give Moksha?

On Sun, Apr 29, 2012 at 11:30 AM, Sunil Bhattacharjya <sunil_bhattacharjya at yahoo.com> wrote:

>Sankhya or Samkhya comes from Samyak Khyati or Samyak Jnana or Right knowledge. All who reads Sankhya may not necessarily get the right knowledge. Ashvaghosha told us in his Buddha charita that even Lord Buddha had doubt as to what happens to the multiple purusha after escaping from the wiles of the Prakriti. He (Lord Buddha) thought that if the identity of the liberated purushas remain even after they get out of the wiles of the Prakrit then it would not be real Nirvana as there would be no guarantee that they would not come back again to the cycle of birth and death. Lord Buddha  practised Yoga too. In the Yogasutra (which Patanjali compiled) the Sankhya (Samyak-khyati) has been referred to as Viveka- khyati. Here one has to concentrate and contemplate on Ishvara, who  is a special purusha, who is free from the wiles of the Prakriti. and Ishvara's vachaka is OM. That means Patanjali tells us to contemplate on "OM". Even in the Yogasutra there
 is no
> mention as to what happens to the liberated purushas. But one who really understands the Sankhya would know that once liberated from the Prakriti the purushas cannot have separate identity and they would become one. That has been the final conclusion of Lord Buddha as he understood the Sankhya well after his long meditation. This is what Lord Krishna also says that some people would get Liberated by Sankhya knowledge itself. This is also referred to by Adi Sankaracharya that for liberation it has to be the Vedantic knowledge as in Vedanta the liberated purushas realize the oneness with Brahman. Adi Sankaracharya too being the intellectual of the highest order like Lord Buddha, he understood what Lord Krishna said or the Svetasvatara Upanishad said in the right perspective. People of shallower depth like us only may have problem in understanding how Adi Sankaracharya referred to  Vedantic kbnowledge while discussing about the Sankhya. 
>Sunil KB

Maybe you are referring to this verse of the BG: १३.२७

ध्यानेनात्मनि पश्यन्ति केचिदात्मानमात्मना ।
 अन्ये सांख्येन योगेन कर्मयोगेन चापरे ॥१३- २५॥  

13.25 Through meditation some realize the Self in (their) intellect with
 the help of the internal organ; others through Sankhya-yoga, and others
 through Karma-yoga. 

Shankara's commentary:

//13.25 Dhyanena, through meditation: Meditation means contemplation (on 
the Self) after withdrawing into the mind with concentration the organs 
of hearing etc. from the objects like sound etc., and then withdrawing 
the mind into the indwelling conscious Self. Thus, from the citation of 
such illustrations as, 'the crane meditates, as it were, 'the earth 
meditates, as it were; the mountains meditate, as it were' (Ch. 7.6.1), 
it follows that meditation is a constant and uninterrupted current of 
thought like a line of pouring oil. Through that meditation, kecit, some
 yogis; pasyanti, realize; the indwelling conscious atmanam, Self; 
atmani, in (their) intellect; atmana, with the help of the internal 
organ that has been purified by meditation.

Anye, others; sankhyena 
yogena, through Sankhya-yoga: Sankhya means thinking, 'These qualities, 
viz sattva, rajas and tamas, are objects of my perception; I am the 
Self, distinct from them, a witness of their functions, eternal and 
different from the qualities.' This Sankhya is Yoga. By Sankhya is meant
 that knowledge which arises from the foregoing reflection. This 
knowledge is itself called Yoga (concentration of mind) inasmuch as it 
is similar to Yoga in leading to the realization of the Self. Through 
that they realize the Self with the help of the internal organ. This is 
how it is to be construed.And anye, others; karma-yogena, through 
Karma-yoga-action itself being the Yoga: Action performed with the idea 
of dedication to God is figuratively called Yoga since it leads to Yoga.
 (others realize) with the help of that (action), through purification 
of the mind and rise of Knowledge. The best among the yogis are 
competent for meditation (dhyana); the modiocre for reflection 
(Sankhya); and the lowest for Karma-yoga.  //

Commentators post-Shankara including Madhusudana Saraswati have said that 'through Sankhya' is to be understood as: these people ALSO realize the Self through dhyAna.  

There is no proof in Shankara Bhashya that the term 'sAnkhya' in this verse refers to a system that is different from Vedanta.  This term has been defined by Shankara in the BGB itself:

2.39: sAnkhye = paramArthavastu viveka viShaye. yoge: tatprAptyupAye.  So, sAnkhya is the theory part that teaches the Ultimate Truth as distinguished from the relative, and yoga is the sAdhana involved applying the theoretical knowledge.

5.5: sAnkyaiH jnAnaniShThaiH sannyAsibhiH 

18.13: sAnkhye = VedAnte.  //which have been spoken of; sankhye, in Vedanta - sankhya is that scripture
 where the subject-matters In the sentence, 'Thou art That', the word 
Thou means the individual Self, and That means Brahman. The 
comprehension of their unity, and also 'hearing, reflection and 
meditation' are referred to as the subject-matters. to be known are 
fully (samyak) stated (khyayante)-; krtante, in which actions terminate.
 KrtAnte qualifies that very word (Vedanta).//

This shows that according to Shankara the term 'sAnkhya' is completely Vedantic. 


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