[Advaita-l] About the term in 'Ishwara' in Advaita - a brief note
ramanan82 at gmail.com
Tue Apr 10 20:29:33 CDT 2012
Surprised about the following comments -
"No scripture or Shankara would ever equate the sOpAdhika Brahman and the
Inner self. None has taught the aupAdhika Ishwara as the inner self."
"So, Shankara does not agree with the idea that Ishwara is the
"No. Ishwara is never the Atman but the jagatkartA aupAdhika chaitanya...
As such such an entity is unreal in Advaita."
BUBVartikam 40-43 and AG Tika seem to contradict all the three above:
"tasmai namastu devAya nirguNAya guNAtmane |
nArAyaNAya *vishvAya* *devAnAm paramAtmane* ||"
Tika: "kimityantaryAmii naaraayaNo nirdishyate
sarvapuruShArthahetuprakaTiibhAvavishayatvena ityAha - tasmA iti"
"etameva samuddishya mantro nArAyaNastadA |
vedavidbhirmahAprAj~nair puruShair viniyujyate ||"
Tika: "na tu purANAgamAbhyAmeva so(a)dhigamyate kiMtu
shrutyakSharairapiityAha | etameveti | 'sahasrasheerShaM devaM vishvAkShaM
vishvashambhuvam | vishvaM nArAyaNam devamakSharam paramam padam' ityAdi
mantro *vedavidbhir antaryAmiNam uddishya viniyukto(a)taH sa vaidika
The following two are the most important part:
"pratyagdhvAntaM cidAbhAsaM svakAryaniyamAtmakam |
tadupAdhirniyantaiShaH paraH prokto *na tu svataH* ||"
Tika: " *kecittu nirupAdhikameva paramantaryAmiNamAhustAnpratyAha |
pratyagiti |* cidAbhAsAkrAntaM pratyagaj~nAnaM
svakiiyavivartaniyamanarUpamiShTameva tadupahitashca paramAtmA niyantocyate
na svatastasya niyantRtvam nirvyApAratvAdityarthaH |
*sopAdhikasyaivAntaryAmitvaM sphuTii kariShyati* |"
"sarvaj~nassarvashaktishca *sarvAtmA* sarvago dhRvaH |
*jagajjanisthitidhvamsahetur* eSha sadeshvaraH ||"
Tika: "nirupAdhikasya sarvaj~natvAdivadantaryAmitvamapi kiM na
syAdityAsha^nkya dRShTAntasiddhimAha | sarvaj~na iti | sarvAtmatvAdau hetuH
| jagaditi | atra ca sarvaj~natvAdi hetuH | sadAshabdaH sarvatra
In the above, it is clearly stated by Suresvara/Anandagiri that it is the
brahman endowed with (superior shuddha sattva) upAdhis who is the
jagatkAraNa, sarvAtmA, antaryAmi, subject of discussion in the antaryAmi
brAhmaNa, who is also described in Taittiriya mantras as the antaryAmi,
vishva, the thousand-headed, vishvAkSha, etc. It is also stated clearly
that nirupAdhika para brahman cannot be considered the antaryAmi.
I fail to understand how "sarvabhUtAnAm iishvaraH" and "iishanashiilaH"
does not refer to the realm of the phenomenal world, when the phrase "Lord
of all beings" admits plurality.
Another verse that comes to my mind in this context is Anandagiri's comment
in Gita 15.15 ("vedaishca sarvair ahameva vedyaH") where this AcArya says
"veda vedyam param brahma bhagavato anyaditi sha^nkAm vArayati --
Glad to stand corrected if I have wrongly interpreted the above.
On Wed, Apr 11, 2012 at 5:47 AM, Rajaram Venkataramani <
rajaramvenk at gmail.com> wrote:
> On Tuesday, April 10, 2012, V Subrahmanian wrote:
> > - Even though Shankara uses the term 'paramAtmaa', 'paraH puruShaH' to
> > refer to para Brahman (as distinct from the Hiranyagarbha) still this
> > para
> > Brahman is NOT the Ishwara (saguna/savishesha/mAyopAdhika Brahman that
> > described in the sixth mantra of the Mandukyopanishat and subsequently
> > negated in the seventh mantra).
> - Shankara gives the reasoning, quoting another shruti: पुरुषान्न परं
> > किञ्चित् सा काष्ठा सा परा गतिः of the Kathopanishat where the
> > ParamapuruSha, paramAtmA, Para, nirguNa, nirvishesha Brahman is
> > as
> > the Ultimate beyond whom there is nothing to be counted as higher. And
> > which is the Ultimate Goal.
> > - Shankara holds that this 'meditation' is on the above said para
> > Brahman (not Ishwara) that should lead to self-realization,
> > and moksha.
> Please cross refer 8.22, especially from ya: bhaktya ... gatadhi. The
> Purusha, the cause in who every thing contained, is reached through one
> pointed devotion to the Self! As opposed to rejecting Ishwara as anatma
> Sankara says Ishwara is the goal reached by devotion to the Self. It is not
> the dualistic Ishwara. The goal that you reach is the supreme state of
> Vishnu (8.21) or "Ishwaram Sthanam" (8.28). Sankara keeps the context of
> who is Vishnu from the beginning of the chapter.
> > - Thus a careful study of the BSB 1.3.13 along with the BGB 8th chapter
> > verses does not prove to one that the sOpAdhika/savishesha Ishwara is
> > same as the Para Brahman which is beyond even this.
> - It is also pertinent to note that in the Mandukyopanishad bhashya for
> > the mantra 12 what Shankara says: //The Knower of Brahman who has
> > realized
> > the highest Truth hs entered into the Self b burning awa the third
> > of
> > latency and hence he is not born again, since Turiya has no latency of
> > creation.
> The goal that is reached is the supreme state of Vishnu, Ishwara. If it is
> not Turiya, then we should not even aim for it. First, He should do this
> meditation on the Immutable and get liberated.
> You seemed concerned that the term Parameshwara is missing in this
> adhikaranam :) You can satisfy yourself in the next adhikaranam where
> Parameshwara is equated to Paramatma.
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