[Advaita-l] जिज्ञासाधिकरणे वर्णकचतुष्टयम् [An essay on the First Sutra] - Part 4

V Subrahmanian v.subrahmanian at gmail.com
Mon Sep 5 20:21:22 CDT 2011

>  श्रीग्रुभ्यो नमः
>>> जिज्ञासाधिकरणे वर्णकचतुष्टयम्
>>> शंकरं शंकराचार्यं केशवं बादरायणम् ।
>>> सूत्रभाष्यकृतौ वन्दे भगवन्तौ पुनः पुनः ॥
> तृतीयवर्णकम्

एतेन तृतीयवर्णकस्य विषयस्तु शास्त्रविचारस्य अधिकारिसिद्धिः इति स्पष्टम् ।
शास्त्रं हि सूक्ताधिकारिणमपेक्षते । किमप्यधिकारिणमनपेक्ष्य शास्त्रं न
प्रणीयते केनापि । प्रकृते ’ब्रह्मजिज्ञासा कर्तव्या’ इत्येतत्पूर्वविचारेण
स्थापितम् । इदानीं केन तज्जिज्ञासोपलक्षितविचारः कर्तव्य इत्यस्य प्रश्नस्य
उत्तरत्वेन सूत्रगताथशब्दविचार आरभ्यते ।  भाष्येऽथशब्दस्य
सम्भाव्यबह्वर्थविचारं प्रवर्त्य अन्ते आनन्तर्यार्थ एव सङ्गतत्वेन स्वीक्रियते
। तथा हि भाष्यवाक्यम् – तस्मात्किमपि वक्तव्यं यदनन्तरं ब्रह्मजिज्ञासोपदिश्यत
इति । उच्यते - नित्यानित्यवस्तुविवेकः, इहामुत्रार्थभोगविरागः,
शमदमादिसाधनसंपत्, मुमुक्षुत्वं च । तेषु हि सत्सु प्रागपि धर्मजिज्ञासाया
ऊर्ध्वं च शक्यते ब्रह्मजिज्ञासितुं ज्ञातुं च न विपर्यये । तस्मादथशब्देन
यथोक्तसाधनसंपत्त्यानन्तर्यमुपदिश्यते । इति ।

एवमथशब्दस्य अर्थनिर्णयेन साधनचतुष्टयस्य अविनाभावत्वमन्वयव्यतिरेकाभ्यां
स्थापितं भवति ।

The Third VarNakam

The topic of the third varNakam is the ‘adhikAri’.  A shAstram expects a
suitable adhikAri to study it to whom indeed it is addressed.  Without
having an aspirant, audience, in mind no one will author a system of study.
It has been already established in the bhAshyam that ‘the enquiry into
Brahman has to be undertaken’.  Now the question of ‘who will take up this
enquiry’ is addressed.  The word ‘atha’ is analyzed with a view to settle
this.  In the bhashyam the various possible meanings of this word are
discussed and finally the word is decided to be in the sense ‘after having
acquired the four-fold….’.  The words of the Bhashyam are:

// It therefore is requisite that something should be stated subsequent to
which the enquiry into Brahman is proposed.--Well, then, we maintain that
the antecedent conditions are the discrimination of what is eternal and what
is non-eternal; the renunciation of all desire to enjoy the fruit (of one's
actions) both here and hereafter; the acquirement of tranquillity,
self-restraint, and the other means, and the desire of final release. If
these conditions exist, a man may, either before entering on an enquiry into
active religious duty or after that, engage in the enquiry into Brahman and
come to know it; but not otherwise. The word 'then' therefore intimates that
the enquiry into Brahman is subsequent to the acquisition of the
above-mentioned (spiritual) means.//

Thereby the indispensability of the four-fold qualifications for the study
of this discipline stands firmly established.

सूत्रगतातःशब्दोऽपि अथशब्दसूचितसाधनचतुष्टयान्यतमयोः वैराग्यमुमुक्षे साधयति ।
तच्च भाष्यादेववगम्यते - अतःशब्दो हेत्वर्थः । यस्माद्वेद एवाग्निहोत्रादीनां
श्रेयःसाधनानामनित्यफलतां दर्शयति – ’तद्यथेह कर्मचितो लोकः क्षीयत एवमेवामुत्र
पुण्यचितो लोकः क्षीयते’ (छान्दो.८.१.६) इत्यादिः । तथा ब्रह्मविज्ञानादपि परं
पुरुषार्थं दर्शयति – ’ब्रह्मविदाप्नोति परम्’ इत्यादिः (तैत्ति.२.१)
तस्माद्यथोक्तसाधनसंपत्त्यनन्तरं ब्रह्मजिज्ञासा कर्तव्या । इति ।

The word ‘ataH’(therefore) of the sutra too establishes the need for the
presence of dispassion towards worldly objects and deep desire for
liberation that have been already indicated by the word ‘atha’.  The idea
is: A person having the four-fold qualifications, has to therefore (because
he has deep dispassion towards the objects of the world, and because he has
the burning desire to get liberated,) commence the enquiry into Brahman.  This
too is clearly stated in the Bhashyam itself:

// The word 'therefore' intimates a reason. Because the Veda, while
declaring that the fruit of the agnihotra and similar performances which are
means of happiness is non-eternal (as, for instance. C*h.* Up. VIII, 1, 6,
'As here on earth whatever has been acquired by action perishes so perishes
in the next world whatever is acquired by acts of religious duty'), teaches
at the same time that the highest aim of man is realised by the knowledge of
Brahman (as, for instance, Taitt. Up. II, I, 'He who knows Brahman attains
the highest'); therefore the enquiry into Brahman is to be undertaken
subsequently to the acquirement of the mentioned means. //

उदाहृतश्रुतिवाक्यद्वयस्य स्वारस्यं रत्नप्रभाकाराः व्याकुर्वन्ति – ’यदल्पं
तदनित्यम्’ ’यत्कृतकं तदनित्यम्’ इति न्याववती ’तद्यथेह’ इत्यादिश्रुतिः
कर्मफलाक्षयश्रुतेर्बाधिका (’अक्षय्यं चातुर्मास्ययाजिनां फलम्’
इत्यर्थबोधकश्रुतिवाक्यमत्र लक्षितम्) । तस्मात् ’अतोऽन्यदार्तम्’ इति श्रुत्या
अनात्ममात्रस्यानित्यत्वविवेकात् वैराग्यलाभ इति भावः । मुमुक्षां सम्भावयति –
तथेति । यथा वेदः कर्मफलानित्यत्वं दर्शयति, तथा ब्रह्मज्ञानात्
प्रशान्तशोकानलमपारं स्वयंज्योतिरानन्दं दर्शयतीत्यर्थः । इति ।

There is an interesting idea behind the two shruti passages quoted in the
Bhashyam.  This is brought out by the Ratnaprabha:

‘That which is finite is ephemeral’, ‘That which is created is temporal’ –
such maxims, in the manner of the shruti ‘'As here on earth whatever has
been acquired by action perishes…’  contradict the shruti passage that ‘the
fruit of action is eternal’ (The underlying shruti text is: Endless indeed
is the happiness enjoyed by the performers of the chAturmAsya yAga’.  Here
the ‘endless’ is only relative and not absolute.) Therefore, by the strength
of the shruti passage ‘Therefore anything other than Atman is only misery’
of the Br.Up.  a discriminating one, vivekI, realizes that the entire lot of
the non-self is ephemeral and attains deep dispassion, vairAgyam.  Even as
the Veda itself teaches the ephemerality of the fruit of action, it does
instruct the attainment of the extinguishing of the fire of misery and the
experiencing of the limitless bliss (Brahmavit Apnoti param of the Tai.Up.).

उक्तरीत्या वैराग्योत्पादकश्रुतिः ’इदं तु मे नैव स्यात्’ इत्याकारिकवृत्तिं
सम्पादयति । मुमुक्षुत्वबोधकश्रुतिः ’इदमेव मम रोचते, तदेवाहं कथमपि प्रापयामि’
इत्याकारिकदार्ढ्यं सम्पादयति । उदाहृतव्याख्यानात् विवेकपूर्वकवैराग्यमेवात्र
दर्शितमिति ज्ञायते । तथापि किमिति भाष्ये विवेकस्य वा शमादेर्वा
उत्पादकश्रुतिर्नोदाहृता इति चेदत्र विवेकचूडामणिश्लोकावलोकनं प्रयोजनकरं भवति


*वैराग्यं च मुमुक्षुत्वं तीव्रं*  यस्य तु विद्यते ।

तस्मिन्नेवार्थवन्तः स्युः फलवन्तः शमादयः ॥ 29 ॥

एतयोर्मन्दता यत्र विरक्तत्वमुमुक्षयोः |

 मरौ सलीलवत्तत्र *शमादेर्भानमात्रता** *||30|| इति ।

एवञ्च वैराग्यमुमुक्षुत्वकथनेन इतरेषाम् उक्तार्थत्वं सम्पादितं भवतीति
मन्तव्यम् ।

Thus as stated, the shruti that espouses dispassion brings about the
determination: ‘Let this never be my lot’.  The other shruti that teaches
about the bliss of the Knower brings about the strong longing ‘This alone
appeals to me.  I shall somehow or the other attain it’.  The above short
analysis teaches that the dispassion is preceded by discrimination.  Yet,
why does the bhashyam not explicitly cite any shruti passage concerning
viveka or the ShaTka-sampatti? In reply we shall recall these verses of the

29. In his case, verily, whose renunciation (vairagyam) and yearning for
Freedom (mumukShA) are intense, calmness and the other practices (ShaTka
sampatti) have (really) their meaning and bear fruit.

30. Where (however) this renunciation and yearning for Freedom are torpid,
there calmness and the other practices are as mere appearances, like water
in a desert.

Thereby the stating of dispassion and desire for liberation implies the
statement of the other disciplines too.

इति तृतीयवर्णकम् अधिकारिसिद्धिं स्थाप्य शास्त्रारम्भणेऽन्तरायराहित्यं
स्फुटयति इत्यत्र रत्नप्रभावाक्यम् – अथातःशब्दाभ्यामधिकारिणः साधितत्वात्तेन
(अधिकारिणा/मुमुक्षुणा) ब्रह्मज्ञानाय विचारः कर्तव्य इत्यर्थः।इति।

Thus the third varNakam by establishing the presence of the suitable
adhikAri obviates any objection against the commencement of the study on
these grounds. Says the Ratnaprabha: By the analysis of the words ‘atha’and
‘ataH’ the adhikAri has been specified and this aspirant is the one who
undertakes the study for acquiring the knowledge of Brahman.

To be continued

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