Venkata sriram P
venkatasriramp at yahoo.in
Sat Nov 5 00:57:15 CDT 2011
What is the difference between mahavalkya upadesa that a sannyasi gets
and the one everyone gets during upanayanam?
The former one gives the adhikara for nivritti marga and the later one
gives the adhikara for pravritti marga.
With upanayana, yajnopavita is invested and gAyatri mantra is initiated.
With this diksha, commences veda adhyayana, agni kArya and karma kANDa related to
vedas. When the brahmachari enters grihasthAshrama, takes the responsibility of
maintenance of trEtAgni, agni hOtra, sthALipAka and other iShTIs. With the performance
of nitya, naimittika karmAs and abstainence from niShiddha karmAs, develops
chitta shuddhi. With the tapas & svAdhyAya practiced in grihasthAshrama, viveka & vairAgya dawn upons him. The moment one gets the vairAgya, one should renounce
the grihasthAshrama and adopt the sanyAsa ashrama also called turiya ashrama.
Before taking sanyasa, one should seek the permission of one's mother (if he is a brahmachari) / one's wife (if he is a grihastha), should handover the responsibilities
to his son, seek the shelter of an uttama yati of dasanami order.
Yati dharma prescribes several rites before initiation of sanyasa. The day on which sanyasa is given, the disciple is adviced to have a bath in flowing river, remove the
kaTi sUtra, kaupina, yajnOpavita & shikha. He has to utter "sanyastaM maya" 3 times.
Then Guru hands over the eka vastra to the sishya. This follows virajA hOma, praNava upadEsa & mahAvAkya upadEsa. The mahAvAkya is given as per their respective
dasanami sanyasa tradtion and amnAya mattAnuShasana. Then the elaborate ritual
of daNDa & kamaNDala sweekAra. daNDa & kamaNDala are only given to brahmaNa yatis but not to kshatriya & vaishya yatis. Later daNDa is entwined with sutra 12 times.
Since, yatis have renounced their yajnOpavita, the daNDa becomes the yajnOpavita for them. 12000 praNava JapAs & daNDa tarpaNa should be performed.
Since, yatis have renounced their shikha, they should not show their shaven heads
to everyone. And hence, they have to cover their shaven heads with their vastra / shATi
which is called "avagUTanaM". The shaven head must be completely covered with
their kAshAya vastra / shATi and only the ears should be left out which symbolically
represent their kartavya ie., vedAnta vAkya shravaNa (sanyasya shravaNaM kUryAt).
So, brahmOpadEsa marks the commencement of pravritti dharma and
mahAvAkyOpadEsa marks the commencement of nivritti dharma.
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