[Advaita-l] yAvad adhikAram avasthitir AdhikArikANAm - 2

V Subrahmanian v.subrahmanian at gmail.com
Wed May 12 05:04:04 CDT 2010


Would it be correct to say that the Yama of the Kathopanishad is a case of a
Jnani being given the post, 'adhikAra', of Yama to officiate there till the
period destined for such a purpose?  Here are some passages from the
Kathopanishad which prompt me to conclude so:

[That Yama here is a Jnani is not in doubt; Nachiketas seeks Atmavidya from
him and insists that he indeed is the most fit to give this vidya.]

In mantra 1.2.10 Yama says after having praised the giver of the vidya, the
adhikari, Nachiketas, and the vidya itself:

जानाम्यहं शेवधिरित्यनित्यं
न  ह्यध्रुवैः प्राप्यते हि ध्रुवं तत् ।
ततो मया नचिकेतश्चितोऽग्निः
अनित्यैर्द्रव्यैः प्राप्तवानस्मि नित्यम् ।। १० ॥

Yama said: I know that the treasure resulting from action is not eternal;
for what is eternal cannot be obtained by the non— eternal. *Yet I have
performed the Nachiketa sacrifice with the help of non—eternal things and
attained this position which is only relatively eternal. *

In the bhashyam we find some interesting aspects:

*जानतापि* नित्यं अनित्यसाधनैः न प्राप्यते इति, .....स्वर्गसुखसाधनभूतो अग्निः
निर्वर्तितः ...तेन अहं *अधिकारापन्नः* नित्यं याम्यं स्थानं स्वर्गाख्यं
नित्यं आपेक्षिकं प्राप्तवानस्मि ।

1. Yama was in full knowledge, when he was a human, that the eternal is not
attained thru non-eternal means.  Yet, he performed those rituals that would
take him to very high heavens. Perhaps that was his svabhAva.  यो यच्छ्रद्धः
स एव सः (One is what one's nature dictates predominantly)

2.  As a result of his very great puNya, and of course, aparokshajnana, he
has been given now the position of Yama.

Would it be proper to conclude:

1. the AdhikArika PuruSha is not selected at random by Iswara but only
someone who has the extremely great puNya coupled with Atma jnana.  Any
Jnani is not fit to hold such positions.  He should be having the requisite
high-end puNya too. Otherwise, I reason, a Jnani who does not have such a
puNya as would not take him to a high heaven, swarga, cannot be placed in
such a position of an AdhikArika purusha.  It is quite reasonable to hold
that every Jnani need not have earned such extremely high merit, punya,
through karma.  He could have 'totally' given himself to atma sadhana by not
neglecting his nitya karma and attained chittashuddhi and owing to
subsequent shravana, etc. succeeded in attaining aparoksha  jnana.

2. The Taittiriya Upanishad says: भीषास्माद् वातः पवते, भीषोदेति सूर्यः,
भीषास्मादग्निः इन्द्रः च, मृत्युर्धावति पञ्चम इति ।  //Impelled by fear of
the Supreme Brahman/Iswara do Vayu, Surya, Agni, Indra and Yama engage
relentlessly in their allotted duties.//

Since Yama is mentioned here and since the 'Yaavadadhikaari' adhikaraNam
speaks of 'Aadhikaarika purushas' such as SUrya, linking the Yama of the
Kathopanishad to this category would not be faulty,  especially considering
that such a status is conferred upon a Jnani.

3.  That the infallible law of karma is seen at its operation in these cases
too.  The candidate so chosen should be such a one who has a combination of
Atma Jnanam AND extremely great puNya.  In fact, it is the puNya that counts
in 'selecting'  the right candidate, apart from his being a Jnani.  This
way, we can account for 'that' particular jiva's prArabdha which places him
in such a position where the karma is exhausted in the enjoyment of all that
comes with such a  high office.  At the exhaustion of this karma, his office
also comes to a close and he rests in absolute moksha.

4. Would it be proper to say: Such positions are always given to Jnanis with
great puNya?  Can we say all Indra-s were Jnani's?  There is one adhikaraNam
in the sutrabhashyam 1.1.28 - 31 where Indra gives the teaching of Atma
jnanam to someone named 'Pratardana'.

5. That it is prArabdha of that jiva is not in doubt as it is seen that they
experienced that position with all its attedant perks.  PrArabdha is
inferred from the effects:  kAryAnumeya.

6.  Since these cosmos-management positions are not for ordinary human
beings, one cannot say that the Jnani - puNyavAn chosen for this kind of
position is not 'born' again to occupy that position; it is not a
garbha-vaasam for that jiva.  It is 'just', abruptly taking that form of
Yama, SUrya, etc.

7. Are there cases of Agni, VAyu and SUrya giving the teaching of Atma Vidya
to someone?

8. What could be the other positions that could be counted under the term
'AdhikArika PuruSha'?

Interested members may respond with their views on the above.

Best regards,

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