[Advaita-l] The Four kinds of 'Mukti' compared with the 'Kaivalya' of Vedanta

V Subrahmanian v.subrahmanian at gmail.com
Sun Jun 6 01:34:15 CDT 2010

What you mean by 'Him' matters.  If it is a person, then it comes under
saguNa mukti, going to a specific place.  If it is the unqualified Brahman
then it is Kaivalya of the Vedanta, also known as BrahmanirvANa.


On Sun, Jun 6, 2010 at 11:51 AM, Sunil Bhattacharjya <
sunil_bhattacharjya at yahoo.com> wrote:

> Your treatment seems confusing. I consider Lord Krishna as the Supreme
> Brahman and being one with him is the Brahmanirvana for me.
> Regards,
> Sunil K. Bhattacharjya
> --- On Sat, 6/5/10, V Subrahmanian <v.subrahmanian at gmail.com> wrote:
> From: V Subrahmanian <v.subrahmanian at gmail.com>
> Subject: [Advaita-l] The Four kinds of 'Mukti' compared with the 'Kaivalya'
> of Vedanta
> To: "A discussion group for Advaita Vedanta" <
> advaita-l at lists.advaita-vedanta.org>
> Date: Saturday, June 5, 2010, 3:10 PM
> श्रीगुरुभ्यो नमः
> Namaste.
> Most of us have heard of these four kinds of mukti:  sAlokya, sAmeepya,
> sArupya and sAyujya.  There are varying definitions of these but generally
> we can understand them to be:
> 1.sAlokya - going to the 'loka' of the deity worshipped
> 2. sAmeepya - being in the proximity of the deity worshipped
> 3. sArUpya - taking on the form that looks alike the deity worshipped
> 4.  sAyujya - getting into the 'body' of the deity worshipped
> All these types of 'mukti' are only relative liberation and not the real
> liberation intended in the Vedanta characterized by non-return to samsara
> अपुनरावृत्तिः.   About this we have a sentence from the commentary of Sri
> Chandrashekhara Bharati SwaminaH for the Viveka chUDAmaNi verse 2 (end):
> तेन सालोक्य-सामीप्य-सारूप्य-सायुज्यानां मुख्यमुक्तित्वाभावश्च सूचितो भवति ।
> सगुणविषयकतया तेषां चतुर्णामपि मिथ्यात्वात्,
> परिच्छेदत्रयशून्यत्वरूपब्रह्मत्वस्य सगु्णेऽसंभवात् ।  ब्रह्मात्मना
> संस्थितिः
> -
> कल्पित-सकलविधोपाधिसंबन्धविधुर-नित्यशुद्धबुद्धमुक्त-प्रत्यगभिन्न-परिपूर्णस्वरूपेण
> अवस्थानं कैवल्यमेव मुक्तिः, ....
> The salient features of the above sentences can be enumerated thus:
>    1. The four kinds described in the beginning are not the 'real' muktiH.
>    2. They  pertain to the saguNa Brahman
>    3. They are therefore mithyA
>    4. Because, the Vedantic ultimate Brahman-nature of being free of the
>    three kinds of limitations of space, time and objects is impossible in
> the
>    SaguNa Brahman.
>    5. 'To remain established as Brahman Itself' is the goal of Vedantic
>    sadhana.
>    6. This is characterized by:
>    7. Freedom from association with all the erroneously imagined limiting
>    adjuncts like body, mind, etc.
>    8. Ever-Free, Ever-Pure, Ever-Conscious
>    9. Non-different from the innermost Self (Atman)
>    10. ParipUrNa-svarUpa
>    11. This is called 'Kaivalya' as different from the four types saalokya,
>    etc.
> Thus, in Vedanta, the four types have no primary status as mukti.  They are
> only relative.  Elsewhere, the Acharya, in this very commentary (I think)
> has stated that the case of Jaya-Vijaya returning from Vishnu loka, VishNu
> sAmeepya and VishNu sArUpya (any or all of these) types is a case to prove
> that these types of mukti-s are not free from the characteristic of
> absolute
> non-return to samsara.  The following points are about these four types:
>    1. A 'bheda', difference, between jiva and Ishwara
>    2. Things like 'closeness', 'same residence', 'similar form' presuppose
> a
>    finite form for the jiva
>    3. This is contradicted by the svarUpa defined for the Atman, for
>    example, in the Bhagavad Gita second chapter as 'all pervading'.
>    4. The Ishwara too that is different from the jiva will be finite as
>    bheda is to be maintained
>    5. This is also against the 'all pervading' nature of Ishwara
>    6. Many all-pervading atma-s cannot co-exist.  Also one or many
>    all-pervading atma-s cannot coexist with the all-pervading Brahman.
>    7. When 'closeness', etc. are to be admitted, there has to be admitted
>    space, aakAsha.  [There is a table and a chair is placed very close to
> it.
>    Both are in space, limited, produced and perishable.  This will be the
>    situation of a moksha where atman is different from Brahman and resides
>    'very close' to Brahman.
>    8. The presence of AkAsha is characteristic of PrakRti
>    9. The 7th Chapter of the Gita teaches that AkAsha, etc. are evolutes of
>    the aparaa prakRti, jaDa prakRti
>    10. Thus, these types of mukti do not guarantee freedom from the
>    influence of jaDa prakRti
>    11. This gives rise to other problems like 'icchA, dveSha', etc. that
> are
>    also features of PrakRti, kshetram (Gita 13. 5,6)
>    12. Freedom from these mental states is not attained in these types of
>    mukti.
>    13. This is evidenced by the story of Jaya-Vijaya who gave room to
>    emotions
>    14. Possibility of curse is also not ruled out in these types of mukti
> as
>    evidenced by the above story
>    15. Since many people reside in such loka-s, all saamsaaric problems
> will
>    be there.
>    16. Also, all these, being the effects of the three guNas of prakRti,
>    sattva, rajas and tamas make these loka-s where these types of mukti are
>    obtained no different from any other created loka.  This is evidenced by
> the
>    Gita verse 18.40:  There is no object in all the three worlds that is
> free
>    from the operation of the three guNas of prakRti.
>    17. This shows that even the loka-s like VaikunTha, Kailasa, etc. are
>    only created ones, coming under the purview of the JaDa prakRti
>    18. Attaining these loka-s for attaining any of the four types of
>    mukti-s  will entail subjection to jaDa prakRti
>    19. This is not moksha at all
>    20. It is only samsara experienced in a different loka.
>    21. Since such mukti-s are attained owing to puNya, the rule: kSheeNe
>    puNye martya lokam vishanti is inevitably applicable
>    22. The word 'mukti' attached to these four types is only relative; it
> is
>    like the word 'amRtatvam' found in the Kathopanishad 1.1.13 - स्वर्गलोका
>    अमृतत्वं भजन्ते [people in the swarga loka experience immortality] This
>    immortality in swarga is only relative to the short span of life in this
>    human loka.  All that it means is that in swarga people will live for a
> very
>    long time.
>    23. The Gita teaches that all loka-s upto and including Brahmaloka are
>    temporary.  VishNuloka and Shiva loka are no exceptions.
>    24. In  the अनात्मश्रीविगर्हणम् Sri Shankaracharya says: धातुर्लोकः
>    साधितो वा ततः किं, विष्णोर्लोको वीक्षितो वा ततः किम् ? शंभोर्लोकःशासितो
> वा
>    ततः किं ? येन स्वात्मा नैव साक्षात्कृतोऽभूत् ।
>    16) The world of Brahma has been acquired, the world of Vishu has been
>    seen and the world of Shiva has been ruled over - all these,verily, are
> in
>    vain to him by whom the Self has not been realized.
>    25. If one has to 'go there' to attain mukti, then that loka is not
> here,
>    now.  That means it is finite.  That means it is only created and
> therefore
>    perishable.
>    The following are the characteristics of Kaivalya:
>    26. The Moksha taught by Vedanta, Kaivalya, is right here and now; it is
>    the very svarUpa of everyone.  It only requires to be realized.
>    27. Going to another loka for mukti is against the Shruti: न तस्य प्राणा
>    उत्क्रामन्ति Brihadaranyaka Up. 4.4.6 which teaches the Jnani's subtle
> body
>    does not leave the physical body at all upon death.  So, there is no
>    question of his traveling to some other loka for moksha.
>    28. Brahman is realized here itself and the jnani is Brahman Itself:
> रसो
>    वै सः says the Taittiriya Upanishad.  महान्तं विभुं आत्मानं मत्वा धीरो न
>    शोचति says the Kathopanishad.  The Infinite Atman is 'known' by the
> Jnani.
>    वेदाहमेतं पुरुषं महान्तम्....नान्यः पन्था विद्यतेऽयनाय says the Purusha
>    sUktam:  'I have known/realized that Infinite Purusha....there is no
> other
>    path than this for moksha.  These teach that the Ultimate Reality,
> Brahman,
>    is realized.  There is no partial realization of Brahman possible.
> Brahman
>    is without any parts.  तत् त्वम् असि says the Chandogya Upanishad:  You
>    'are' That.  It does not say: tat tvam bhaviShyasi (you will become
> That).
>    By this declaration the Upanishad teaches: 1. You are already That and
> 2.You
>    are not any part of That.  You are Wholly
> That.   यत्साक्षादपरोक्षाद्ब्रह्म
>    says the Br.Upanishad:  Brahman is directly immediately intimately
> avaialble
>    as the very innermost self of everyone. No doubt needs to be entertained
> as
>    to whether one will be able to realize Brahman 'fully' or not.  Such
> doubts
>    are unvedantic thoughts that are only impediments to moksha.
>    29. Real Moksha of the Vedanta is complete freedom from prakRti and
>    finitude
>    30. This is called 'Kaivalya'
>    31. This is characterized by abheda, kevala bhAva.
>    32. This does not imply 'svarUpa naasha' of the jiva.
>    33. In abheda, aikyam, the jiva's svarupa is impossible of nAsha.  The
>    Gita teaches the Atman as 'nityaH sarvagataH sthANuH'  ’अविनाशि तु
> तद्विद्धि
>    येन सर्वमिदं ततम्. [Know that Atman to be imperishable and that which
>    pervades all this].  So, where is the question of the Atman perishing or
>    attaining destruction?  The Brihadaranyaka Up. teaches: न हि द्रष्टुः
>    दृष्टेः विपरिलोपो विद्यते, अविनाशित्वात् [The consciousness of the seer
> will
>    never go out of existence, because it is indestructible.]
>    34. Any mukti that is a result of attainment of a loka or a rUpa or a
>    status is time-bound
>    35. There is a maxim:  संयोगाः वियोगान्ताः -  all conjoinings last only
>    as long as they are not disjoined
>    36. And a mukti that is a result of going to some place and being with
>    someone and taking some form is all characterized by a beginning and
>    therefore will have an end.
>    37. Only that mukti taught as the supreme one in the Vedanta that is
>    nothing other than realizing that  one is nitya mukta svabhaava is the
>    ever-lasting one
>    38. In this, one is already ever-free, never-bound; only not realizing
>    this owing to ajnAna.  And thinking that one is bound.
>    39. When owing to the Guru-ShAstra upadesha and sadhana one realizes
>    this, the ajnAna is dispelled and one comes to know that one has ever
> been
>    free and that it is one's true nature
>    40. This 'coming to know' is not to be mistaken as any 'beginning of a
>    state' and its end feared; it is only a figurative expression to denote
> the
>    dispelling of avidya
>    41. The dispelled avidya will not return as there is no power that can
>    cause its return.
>    42. There is no going to any other loka, taking any other form or being
>    with any other different entity
>    43. Thus, there is no finittude of any kind in this moksha and therefore
>    this alone is the real one.
> श्रीसद्गुरुचरणारविन्दार्पणमस्तु
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