[Advaita-l] A vichAra on Swatantra & Paratantra (Independent & dependent Realities)

Shrisha Rao shrao at nyx.net
Sat Apr 10 03:50:17 CDT 2010

El abr 10, 2010, a las 11:20 a.m., V Subrahmanian escribió:

> shrIgurubhyo namaH
> ***The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy *
> *says:
> *
> *// Madhva (1238-1317 CE)*
> * According to Madhva there are two orders of reality: 1. svatantra,
> independent reality, which consists of Brahman alone and 2. paratantra,
> dependent reality, which consists of jivas (souls) and jada (lifeless
> objects). Although dependent reality would not exist apart from brahman's
> will, this very dependence creates a fundamental distinction between brahman
> and all else, implying a dualist view. //
> *

> A vichara on Swatantra (PAramarthika) & Paratantra (vyAvahArika)
> These two are not real on the same footing:
> 1.  The PAramArthika is that in which the vyAvahArika does not exist.  P can
> exist by itself. But V has to depend on the P for its existence.

If you are presenting your own opinion, that is fine, but it would be as well to note that your views are not acceptable to either Madhva or Purandara Dasa (who do not accept the existence of a व्यावहारिक category at all), for which reason your analysis is rather ill-founded.  It is also worth noting that Madhva's reading of Bhagavad Gita II-12 (नत्वेवाहं जातु नासं न त्वं नेमे जनाधिपाः) and other authorities such as नित्यो नित्यानाम् rules out such reasoning as the following as representing his views:

> 10.  Since Hari and the prapancha are of opposite characteristics, the two,
> Swatantra and Paratantra are not 'satya on the same footing'.  We can say

The encyclopedia you have cited is providing an inaccurate and misleading summary, and thus does not form a firm-enough foundation on which to reason further.


Shrisha Rao

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