[Advaita-l] bhagavadbhaktirasAyana - Verse 1

sundararaman sundararaman_k at dataone.in
Mon Sep 10 10:24:19 CDT 2007

  Raam ram
  Dr R Krishnamurthi Sastrigal has given lectures in Tamil for each sloka of
Sribhakthirasayanam and this has been recorded in MP3 audio casettes and are
available fro Mullavasal Heritage Trust (See his web page in
Adv.vedanta.org)Pl get in touch with V Rajagopal (vrgopal at yahoo.com) in case
you would like to obtain the same
  K Sundararaman
  ----- Original Message -----
  From: "Murali Karamchedu" <murali_m_k at msn.com>
  To: <advaita-l at lists.advaita-vedanta.org>
  Sent: Monday, September 10, 2007 2:21 AM
  Subject: [Advaita-l] bhagavadbhaktirasAyana - Verse 1

  > Dear List Members,
  > Here is my first post on the bhagavadbhaktirasAyana. Many of the issues
  > introduces here, he studies in greater detail in later chapters. We will
  > cover that detail when we get there.
  > -----------------------------bhagavadbhaktirasAyana - verse 1
  > -----------------------------------
  > navarasamilitam va kevalam va pumartham.
  > paramamiha mukunde bhaktiyoga vadanti |
  > nirupama sukhasam.vid rUpamasprSTadu:kham.
  > tamahamakhilatuSTyai shAstradrSTyA vyanajmi ||
  > "Bhaktiyoga - whose object is mukunda - conceived either as constituted
  > the nine rasAs or as an independent rasA by itself, is a parama
  > [1]. Its nature is one of incomparable happiness, one that does not even
  > admit any sorrow. For everyone's satisfaction, I will set forth the
  > traditional perspective on this bhaktiyogA."
  > MS begins his work with the customary mangaLAcaranam, by invoking the
  > of mukunda, and then stating subject of the work, his intent and the
  > audience. His TIkA to this verse is elaborate; he starts by first
  > considering the three yogAs - karma, jnAna and bhakti and delineates the
  > scope of each. karmayogA - defined by sAmAnya dharmAs and ones
svadharmA -
  > helps one achieve anta:karaNa shuddi. It is enjoined on one until, and
  > until they either develop intense vairAgyA for this samsAra or develop
  > intense shraddhA in bhagavadkathA.
  > For one who does not have cittAdrutI[2], the path to pursue as a
  > pre-requisite to this intense vairAgyA is that of tatvajnAna; for one
  > does have this cittAdrutI the path to intense shraddhA in
bhagavadharmA -
  > such as bhagavadkathAshravaNa etc -  is bhakti. To achieve anta:karaNa
  > shuddhi, the manas needs to be steadied to achieve ekAgratA. In the path
  > tatvajnAna, ashTAngayogA etc are included as the means by which one
  > this; and for the path of bhakti, bhaktiyogA is the means.
  > karmayogA leads to anta:karaNa shuddhi, jnAnayogA (tatvavivecana and
  > ashTAngayogA etc) prepares ones mind for uninterrupted ekAgratA on
  > bhagavAkAra. The duration of this jnAnayogA is until ones mind is
  > prepared for such ekAgratA, when bhaktiyogA starts. When out of this
  > where due to uninterrupted thought of bhagavAn, one firmly establishes
  > IshvarA in ones mind; Ishvara destroys all the viSaya samskArAs.
  > For such fortunate and exalted few, for whom bhakti as a sAdhana has
  > all natural affinity to material attractions directed and submitted to
  > bhagavAn, who have turned away from all such material attractions; for
  > the manovrttis have softened due to such bhagavadkathAsravaNa and the
  > of sAdhanA have become the fruit [3]; who have in-formed their manas by
  > completely apprehending the form of bhagavAn and established this form
  > firmly within them; for such bhaktAs, the rasAs express themselves as
  > rapture, a sthAyibhAva (permanent mood), and is as such a manifest
  > expression of paramAnanda. It is thus that rasajnAs say that bhaktiyoga
  > paramam, niratishayam (superlatively incomparable), and it is thus that
  > is a paramapurushArthA.
  > Happiness, completely untaintable by sorrow, is paramapurushArthA. While
  > is popular to say that dharma, artha, and kAma are purushArthAs, these
  > the means to the purushArthA they facilitate - happiness; just as when
  > says that 'the hoe is my life', one really means that the hoe is the
  > to ones life. moksha, also being paramAnandarUpa, is an established
  > purushArthA.
  > While bhagavadbhakti and moksha are both paramapurushArthAs,
  > is not synonymous with brahmavidyA. Their forms, means and results are
  > different. Each of them has their particular characteristics. When one
  > attained cittadruti, then the savikalpa vrtti that the citta attains of
  > bhagavadAkAra is bhakti; wheras independent of cittadruti, when one has
  > nirvikalpa manovrtti of brahman, that is brahmavidyA. [4]
  > Their means are different. For bhakti, bhagavadkathAshravaNa is the
  > for brahmavidya it is cogitation on the mahAvAkhyAs like tatvamasi etc.
  > Their fruits are different. The fruits of bhagavadbhakti is
  > The fruit of brahmavidya is the complete elimination of ajnAna which is
  > ultimate cause of all sorrow.
  > The adhikArIs - people who are competent, who are equipped with the
  > pre-requisites - are different. It is adequate to be a prANI (animal) to
  > pursue bhakti, wheras one needs to be equipped with sAdhanA-catuSTaya
  > needs to be a paramahamsa-parivrAjaka. [5]
  > If one admits such a distinction, does it make it impossible for a
bhaktA to
  > attain moksha? This is because, to be a mumukshu one needs vairagya, and
  > bhakta will not have vairagya from bhaktisukhA. [MS's answer here is] So
  > it! For one who is in the rapture of bhaktisukhA, such vairagya or
moksha is
  > irrelevant, their actions are not driven by any desire, their doubts
  > all been resolved, the nature of bhagavduNAs are such that they do not
  > away from such rapture.
  > AtmArAmAshca munayo nirgranthA apyurukrame|
  > kurvatyahaitukIm. bhaktimitthambhUtaguNo hari: || Bhagavata, 1.7.20 ||
  > (While munIs are engrossed in the bliss of AtmA, and their doubts have
  > been resolved, they continue in desireless bhakti of bhagavAn because
  > is the nature of hari's guNAs.)
  > Thus it is that even jIvanmuktAs are bhagavadbhaktAs.
  > (To be continued.)
  > Regards,
  > Murali Manohar
  > [1] There are four purushArthAs - dharma, arthA, kAmA and moksha. MS
  > that bhaktiyogA is itself primarily and superlatively a purushArtha.
  > Primarily in the sense that it partakes in each of the purushArthAs, and
  > superlatively or ultimately in the sense that it's essential nature is
  > of paramAnanda (beatitude), and therefore is a purushArthA by itself.
  > [2] cittadrutI: The softening of the cittA. cittA is considered hard by
  > nature, inherently ossified by our experiences. The analogy that MS uses
  > later on is that of lac, just like proximate or intense heat can soften
  > to different degrees; so does sadhanA.
  > [3] "sakrtsevayA nityasevAphalam tvam prayacca prayacca prbhovenkatesha"
  > [4] All cognition, except brahmasAkshAtkAra, requires two things:
  > in-formation of the mind, i.e the citta assumes the form of the thing
  > cognized, and cidAbhAsa, the enlightening reflection of cit; in the case
  > savikalpa manovrtti, these two continue to exist, the thing cognized
  > Ishvara; in the case of brahmavidya, all that is required is the vrtti
  > the 'thing' cognized - brahman; and as such becomes that.
  > [5] MS goes through extensive discussion here about the distinctions,
  > considers the issue from several perspectives such as nyAyA, issues such
  > ativyApti doshA, whether the result of bhakti is transient like svarga,
  > considerations from a mImamsa perspective etc.


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