[Advaita-l] renunciation

Lakshmi Muthuswamy lakmuthu at yahoo.com
Mon May 22 07:45:24 CDT 2006

--- "Jaldhar H. Vyas" <jaldhar at braincells.com> wrote:

> On Sat, 13 May 2006, Sylvain wrote:
> > Regarding "renunciation", which sanskrit word means it
> best ?  tyAga ?, 
> > nivRitti-mArga ?,  vairAgya ?
> > Are these names synonyms ?
--- "Jaldhar H. Vyas" wrote
> tyAga is relinquishing ownership.  Its origins are in
> sacrificial  concepts.  When one makes an offering, it is
followed up  by a statement that the offering is for some
God not for oneself.  From  this it expanded 
> to mean relingushing all material posessions.

TyAga  tyAgah is a noun from the root tyaj, meaning to give
up, abandon.
Quoting manusmriti. 8.3.19
na mAta na pita na stI na putrah tyAgamarhati. 
BgitA 18.6
Yajna dAna tapah kAryam natyAjyam karma eva tat.
UdAra, dAnam - raguvamsha
What ever is given up with the foundation of jnanam and not
out of  dejection or uselessness of purpose.
It is the Act of giving up.
B.GitA ch.16.2 – tyAgah – is included in the list of
divine virtues or qualities or nature.
Ch 18.4, Krishna says there are three types of tyAga –
sAttvic tyAga, rAjasic tyAga, tAmasic tyAga.

--- "Jaldhar H. Vyas" wrote
nivRitti-mArga is the whole process of decreasing
> attachment that  culminates in renunciation.

nivritti margah = pravRtti upAdhi vinAshaka yathnah.
pravRtti prAg abhAvarUpam audAsInyam. 

The first portion of the Vedas is in the form of prvRtti
– one engages oneself in activities and positive pursuits
to fulfil the purusharthas. May be progeny, wealth, svarga
etc. this requires a certain amount of right efforts to
achieve the desired ends. Certain karmas are enjoined –
kayikam karma physical activity, mAnasikam karma mental
activity and vacikam Karma speech/chanting are performed.

nivRtti marga forms the last portion of the Vedas –
Vedanta – that is purely in the form of negation. That is
all those notions that are superimposed on the Self, Atma
is negated.. This part of the Veda is in the form of
knowledge, jnAna, leading to the negation of what I am not,
and appreciation of what I am. Nitya/anitya , Atma /anAtma 
yoAhamasmi brahmahmasmi, Ahamasmi brahmahmasmi, pUrnoham,

--- "Jaldhar H. Vyas" wrote
Vairagya is dispassion.  A lack of interest in worldly
ambitions which is  the key to renunciation.

Vairagya- is the spirit of detachment – virAgasya bhAvah-
vigatah rAgah. Where there is no attachment/likes/dislike.
It is an attitude to be developed. Aruci in the samsarika
vasana. This is a natural consequence of viveka. 

--- "Jaldhar H. Vyas" wrote
 I would agree that sannyasa most directly means

Sannyasa– is the act of renouncing {sam+ni+as+ ganj}
renouncing  the samsAric way of life and adopting the
monastic way of life. Sannyasa is a way of life. One does
not perform the rituals i.e karma .i.e agni  karma –
nithya, naimithika, nishiddha, parihara karma, etc.of the
other three Ashramas as enjoined in the first part of the

The only Alambanam recommended for a sannayasi is Isvara
and his Guru, to maintain his sanity. As a human being is a
social being and the human mind is comfortable, only with
some sort of Alambanam. May be there are exceptions. 

Types of Sanyasa :
 vividisha sannyasa  is meant for knowing.  He has a
certain viveka, vairagya and also mumukshatvam. He
continues to study the sastras for knowing the Atma Brahman
after taking to the order of sannyasa.  
vidvat sannyasa is a sannyasa taken because of knowledge.
He has already finished all his duties and obligations in
the world. He takes to a life of anonymity. and his life is
in the hands of prakruti. He is a jnAni like.. Sage

There is a third type of sannyasa called Apat sannyasa . A
grahasta or a vanaprasta knows he or she is going to die.
They know the value of sannyasa ashrama. A guru is
approached and Apat sannyasa is taken before death.

om namo narayanaya
Lakshmi Muthuswamy


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