[Advaita-l] Re : Karma and Reincarnation (Chandrashekar)
lakmuthu at yahoo.com
Fri Jul 21 04:54:37 CDT 2006
The comments of Sri Dayananda Saraswati on Gita verse 4.13 chAturvarNyam mayA srushtam... guNakarma vibhAga of varNa
chAturvarNyam mayA srushtam... is verse no.4.13 not 4.3
This topic seems to be a topic of fiery discussion and a burning issue
in todays world.
I am going to be reproducing some relevant paragraphs from Swami
Dayananda Sarasvatis book the Gita Home study. pages 60 -68 Book 1
If God made all these divisions among people - brahmanas, kshatriyas,
vaishyas,sudras, to use the vedic context - then he must be definitely
partial because the brahmanas seem to be better off.
In verse 4.13 to deal with this concern Krishna says he made them all,
at the same time, says that he is not to blame.
cAturvarnyam mayA srstam gunakarmavibhagashah
tasya kartAramapi maam viddhyakatAramavyayam
maya- by me, guNa -karma-vibhagashah - a division based on duties and
qualities, cAturvarnyam - fourfold grouping of people srstam - was
tasya -its kartAram - author api -even , mAm - Me:
avyayam - changeless, akartAram - non -doer, viddhi - know.
Meaning of the verse:
The four-fold grouping of people, a division based on duties and
was created by me. Even though I am its author, know Me to be a
Here Krishna is referring to the Vedic system that divided people into
groups, saying that he has created both, the people and the groups. As
creator of everything, srsti-kartA, the Lord cannot deny his
nor does he here while talking to Arjuna.
Although this classification into four groups refers to the Indian
what Krishna says here is universally applicabale. in other contexts,
see people divided in terms of royalty, nobility, wealth and poverty.
others refer to groups of people as the upper class, up[per middle
middle class, lower middle class and so on. Wherever there are people,
classifications or groups are always to be found.
In the Vedic context, people are divided into four groups on the basis
their qualities, gunatah vibhagah, and on the basis of what they have
do, karmatah vibhaga. This division was created by bhagavAn.
The Nature of Gunas:
The division of people according to qualities, guNa vibhAga, is found
over the world, not just in India. The qualities upon which this
is based are psychological, meaning that they refer to the composition
disposition of the mind. The division based upon the quality of the
mano guNa is fourfold.
the GuNas or qualities themselves are three in number - sttva, rajas
tamas. every one has these three qualities and from certain
these three qualities, four groups are derived.
One possible composition of these three gunas is sttava-rajas-tamas,
sattva is predominanat, rajas is less predominanat and tamas is least
predominanat. A second combination in the order of predominanace is
rajas-sattva-tamas. Similarly the third composition is
and the fourth is tamas -rajas-sattva. These four combinations are the
four compositions possible. There can be shades of each of these four,
a fifth combination is not possible.
Why, you may ask, can tamas-sattva-rajas or sattva-tamas rajas not be a
fifth or sixth combination? By looking at each of these three gunas
involved, we shall see why only four varnas or groups of people are
possible when the division is based on their gunas.
Sattva stands for any type of thinking: - contemplativeness, inquiry,
silence(shanti) and the disciplines,shama and dama stand for sattva.
Rajas stands for activity: - Discipline is also found in a person in
rajas is predeominant: but there will also be a lot of ambition,energy,
enthusiasm along with it - the go getter, for example.
Tamas stands for dullness, inactivity.- Tamas is a certain dullness,
lethargy and laziness.
Every one is a combination of these three and as we have seen, the
combinations can vary. Babies, for example. tamas -rajas-sattva. Tamas
being predominant they sleep for most of the time. As they get older,
predominates. and they become very active. Finally when they are grown,
expect them to be sattvikAs.
To be continued in the next.
om namo narayanya
// unquote //
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