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Jaldhar H. Vyas jaldhar at braincells.com
Wed Aug 17 09:33:14 CDT 2005

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On Sat, 13 Aug 2005, Abhijit joshi wrote:

> as I said I am doing research so I am facing a difficulty. I need with 
> reference that what Argument was given against the concept of "Atman" in 
> "Nyaya, Vasheshika and Carvaka"? Please try to write in English because my 
> screen reader can read only english

Ok before answering, bear in mind I have only read the Vedantic rejoinders 
to the arguments of these darshans not their original texts.  However I do 
believe the following is accurate.

Carvakas were radical materialists.  They believed that there was no atma 
and the body merely consisted of the four elements: earth, air, fire. and 
water, operated mechanically, and existence ended upon death.

Nyaya-Vaisheshika believe in an atma that is the repository of dharma and 
adharma (dharmAdharmAshreya) which is knowable through the mind and 
observable through the actions of the body.  However they are dualists. 
They do not think the atma can be one with brahman as the presence of 
adharma, avidya etc. in the atma would be defects if applied to Brahman. 
So Shruti statements which speak of liberation only imply equivalence with 
Brahman (i.e. a state of purity, knowledge etc. equal to Brahman) not 

Jaldhar H. Vyas <jaldhar at braincells.com>

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