Upadesha Sahasri (Verse Section 1)
vsundaresan at HOTMAIL.COM
Fri Feb 28 12:55:41 CST 2003
It is good to see this series being resumed! Let us hope that you will be
able to carry it through without further problems from the computer.
>25. The Upanishads are, therefore, commenced in order
>to teach the Knowledge of Brahman so that Ignorance
>might be removed and transmigratory existence might
>for ever come to an end.
It is my recollection that Sengaku Mayeda translates this verse somewhat
differently. In particular, I think he takes the term "upanishad" in this
verse as a reference to the Upadesasahasri itself. Of course, in the
original, the word used is "iyam," which is in the singular number
(prArabdhopanishat tv iyam). Could you post the translations of all three
sources that you have with you? I, for one, would be most grateful.
>From ADVAITA-L at LISTS.ADVAITA-VEDANTA.ORG Sat Mar 1 14:03:23 2003
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Date: Sat, 1 Mar 2003 14:03:23 -0800
Reply-To: List for advaita vedanta as taught by Shri Shankara
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To: List for advaita vedanta as taught by Shri Shankara
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From: ken knight <hilken_98 at YAHOO.COM>
Subject: Re: Upadesha Sahasri (Verse Section 1)
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--- Vidyasankar <vsundaresan at HOTMAIL.COM> wrote:
> original, the word used is "iyam," which is in the
> singular number
> (prArabdhopanishat tv iyam). Could you post the
> translations of all three
> sources that you have with you? I, for one, would be
> most grateful.
Good Evening ( in UK anyway ) Vidyasankar,
Only Jagadananda gives the translation incorrectly as
the plural 'upanishads'. Thanks for pointing this out.
I am posting below the two verses...25 and 26....in
the three versions that I have with the notes on each
as you may like to compare the full notes of each
translator. Only Alston has the Sanskrit
transliteration and I have no version in the
Devanagari script to check this against.
I am offering you these as I tend to only include the
notes which cross reference to sruti and I omit the
sometimes lengthy interpretations of the translators.
I will add these if a particular verse causes some
25. Therefore, in order to destroy ignorance, end
transmigratory existence, and set forth knowledge of
Brahman, this Upanishads been commenced.
26. And the word Upanishad may be derived from the
verbal root sad preceded by the prefix upa and
ni and followed
the suffix kvip, (1) since it diminishes and
destroys birth and the like. (2)
(1) kvip is a suffix which disappears after having
been added to several verbal roots, including sad, and
preceded by a preverb. See Panini III,2,61; 76 etc.
(2) Shankara gives similar etymological explanation of
the word upanishad in his commentaries on
Upanishads. He takes the verbal root sad to mean (1)
destroy ..viSharaNa (2) go, reach (gati) and (3)
mitigate (avasAdana) and interprets the word
upani-shad as: (1) destroy the seeds of transmigratoty
existence such as nescience (2)make seekers after
final release go to highest Brahman. Or (3) mitigate
such a multitude of miseries as living in the womb,
birth, death and old age (garbhavAsajanmajar
Adyapadravab^Rinda. Shankara, Katha Upanishad,
introduction Shri ShankaragranthAvaliH pp101-2.
In another place he explains the word as (1)
destroy (niShAtayati) such numerous evils as birth,
old age and disease
(garbhajanmajarArogAdyanarthapUga) (2) lead to
highest Brahman or (3) mitigate (avasAdayati)
completely, ie. Annihilate
(vinAShayati) nescience and other causes of
transmigratoty existence ( Shankara on Mund. Up. Intro
as above p. 304.
Today it is generally accepted by scholars that
the word Upanishad derived from the verb upa-ni-sad
means: sit (sad)
down (ni) near [someone].
25. The Upanishads(1) are, therefore,(2)commenced in
order to teach the Knowledge of .Brahman so that
Ignorance might be removed and transmigratory
existence might for ever come to an end(3).
26. The word Upanishad is derived from the root sad
(4) prefixed by two particles, Upa (5) and ni (6)
and followed by the suffix Kvip. So, that (7) which
loosens the bondage of birth, (old age), etc., (and
enables a man to approach Brahman) and that which
destroys birth, (death), etc., is called Upanishad.(8)
(1).Upanishadic texts are meant. (2). As right
knowledge independent of actions produces liberation.
(3) This verse states the main conclusion of the
(4)This root has three meanings., (a) to slacken, (b)
to move and (c) to destroy (5)Near. (6) Certainly. (7)
The Knowledge of Brahman (8)1n the primary sense. The
books are so called in a secondary sense only.
tasmAd aj~nAna-hAnAya saMsAra-viniv^Rittaye
brahma-vidyA-vidhAnAya prarabdhopanshat tv iyam
 Therefore this Upanishad is begun for the removal
of ignorance, for the ending of reincarnation and as a
means to the realization of Brahman.
sader upanipUrvasya kvipi copanishad bhavet
mandikaraNa-bhUvAc ca garbhAdeH ShAtanAt tathA
[261 The word Upanishad is formed from the root
sad (to destroy) with the prefixes upa and ni
and the suffix called kvip (1) An Upanishad is so
called because it weakens and destroys the cycle of
experiences beginning with birth.
(1)The kvip suffix is a zero suffix supposed to be
used when converting a verbal root into a noun.
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