[Advaita-l] Difference between Sankhya and Advaita
srikanta.narayanaswami at yahoo.com
Thu Sep 15 08:13:01 CDT 2011
Yoga means to unite. One should not forget that apart from Pratyahara and Dhyana the Yoga also includes Svadhyaya (studies), Vivekakhyati (Sankhya-analysis) and Ishvara-pranidhana (Bhakti and surrender to the Ishvara). The Yoga does not explain the nature of unification of the freed Jiva and Ishvara, ie. it does not say what happens to the Jiva when it concentrates on Ishvara or OM and getsseparated from the Prakriti. It is left to the Vedanta to say that unification is achieved with Ishvara and that is the same as the realization that the Jiva is not separate from Ishvara. That is the stage when the idea of separate individualism of the Jiva (cultivated under the influence of Prakriti) disappears. This is the state of the dissolution of the Avidya or acquisition of the true Vidya. One who is fastidious about language may like to argue on the meanings of the individual words or sentences used for these expressions but I think that one must choose the
essence and need not worry about the absolute correctness of the literary expressions. It is not easy to produce writing, which can substitute direct learning from the guru.
Yoga darshana has 6 dimensions,Yama,niyama,asana,pranayama,pratyahara,dhyana,dharana,samadhi.The yama,niyama,asana takes care of the control of the body.The pranayama takes care of the breath which is connected to the Prana,the life force.The dhyana part refers to the mind.The mind has its vacillations(cancalata).This is controlled by pratyahara,i.e withdrawal.The Dharana refers to the holding of the mind
after the pratyahara.The samadhi pada refers to the elevation of the mind to the higher plane of conciousness.The ashtanga Yoga marga doesnot include Ishwara pranidhana,as it was not included in the original dharshana.It was ioncluded later as part of the Saishwara vada.There is no mention of Bhakthi and Ishwara darshana in the Yoga marga.This can be verified.Further,the Yoga darshana is dualistic(dvaita darshana).It maintains the individualistic 'jiva notion"as it has started from there.The yoga darshana is complete in itself,as far as its definition goes.But,Yoga marga is strenuous.1)The body has to be controlled by Yoga methods by asanas.2)yama is observance of the suppressing of the mind including taking right kind of food,i.e.diet.3)Niyama is observance of punctuality in ones
feelings which is generated by food,ones taste etc.-this is outer control4)The pranayama controls the mind inwardly
by the free flow of Prana shakthi5)Pratyahara follows after that by the withdrawal of the mind by by Nirodha shakthi-supression of the passions and creating sublimity.Dhyana is obervance of the body to see whether it contains any residue-i.e Kashaya.Dharana is holding the mind after filtering all the dirt the mind has,in the previous step.The last limb is samadhi.(samadhi-samyak dhiyate)It is the lifting of the conciousness to the higher plane.This Prajna is called -Rithambhara prajna.After this the Jiva still maitains his identity.This itself is the highest vision.(This is the last part of the Yoga.
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