[Advaita-l] "svA" tattva
Venkata sriram P
venkatasriramp at yahoo.in
Sun Feb 20 03:15:25 CST 2011
Namaste Dear Srikanta Ji,
There is also a secret aspect associated with “svA” .
In the 1st Mandala of Rg Veda, Rishi Dirghatamas envisions a rk which is as follows:
suShupvAMsa rubhavastad pricchata
agOhyaka idaM nO abubudhat
svAnaM vastO bOdhayitAramabravI
tat saMvatsara idaM adyA vyakhyata //
(Rg Samhita 1.161.13 – DirghatamAH)
The names of nakshatra mandala, sAvana & ayana tattvas (dakshinayana & uttarayana) during Rg Vedic period was entirely different as it is now. Some of the current names of nakshatras were not to be found in rg veda.
The above rk envisioned by Dirghatamas gives out the clues of nUtana saMvatsara. For instance, the dakshinAyaNa was hinted here in the Rk Mantra of Kutsasa when Ravi enters hastA naKshatra mandala as:
amIyE paNchOkShaNO ……suparNA Eta …..mE asyarOdasI”
Further elaboration of saMvatsara kAla and its bifurcation into UttarAyaNa & dakShiNAyaNa is referred in “asyavAmIya sukta” of Dirghatamas. This saMvatsara is visualized as “suparNa” or “garutmAn” whose two wings are envisioned as dakShiNayaNa & uttarAyaNa. The same suparNa was visualized as the vehicle of Vishnu in Agamas / Puranas.
Now, coming to the point of discussion, in the above Rk given above by Dirghatamas, can be explained as:
suShupvAmsaH = hEmantasisirayOrmanda pratApatvEna nidritA iva sthitAH ; rubhavaH = rasmyAtmakAH ; tad pricchata = sUryaM iti seShaH prakaraNAt (atha prashna swarupa); agOhya = hE agOpanIya; naH = idaM jyOtiH kaH ; abUbudhat = bOdhayEt ; vastaH = mEShaH (surya evAtramEShatvEna rUpakAtisayana ucchyate) ; svAnaM bOdhayitAraM abratvIt adyAsaMvatsarE = saMvatsarE pUrNE ; idaM = jagat; vyakhyata = prakAsayata;
While envisioning the saMvatasara kAla tattva, Rishi Dirghatamas envisions “svA” to be the “nakShatra maNDala” in which the ravi enters during hEmanta & sisira ritu. This “svA” nakShatra maNDala is in between Arudra & Punarvasu nakShatra maNDala. Since, it is in between arudra & punarvasu, “svA” nakShatra is called “vyAdha nakShatra”. Since, the distance between Arudra & Sva nakShatra maNDala is extremely negligible, Aitreya BrahmaNa has considered Arudra & Vyadha (svA) nakShatra to be one and same.
And the beauty of the “vedic symbolism” which is otherwise called “tantra” lies in concealing the veda rahasyas by camouflaging them with pictorial demonstration because of the sruti vAkya “parOkSha priyAyaya hi dEvAH; pratyakShaM dviviShaH”.
The “svA” nakShatra has been taken as “svAna” which is depicted as Dog. Since, it is non-different from Arudra, and since, Rudra is the adhiShtana devata of Arudra Nakshatra Mandala, and hence, Rudra is depicted as Presiding over the Svana (Arudra) nakshatra which in agama / purana / tantra is depicted as Siva alongwith Sunaka.
It needs a special mention that in shinshumAra chakra, the 3 nakShatra maNDalAs are in the same line Arudra Nakshatra Mandala, Mrigasira & Rohini. Rohini is followed by Mrigashira;
Mrigashira is followed by Arudra. In Shatapatha Brahmana, Aitreya Brahmana and
Purana, there is an interesting aspect related to these stars.
The prajApati out of lust desired to have conjugal relationship with his daughter Usha. Usha assumes the form of Rohita Stri (Rohini) and tries to escape. Thus, Prajapati chases after Rohita. Rudra having seen Prajapati releases His arrow which severs the head of Prajapati. The severed head of prajapati assumes the form of “mriga”. Meanwhile, the retas of prajapati falls down which became the “first seed” for human creation. In the process of chasing the Prajapati, out of the eyebrows of Rudra, drops of
sweat trickle down on earth. This *drop of sweat* assumes a terrible form and
eventually becomes the *Jwara Purusha* or the *Deity of Visha Jwaras / Fevers*.
Hence, for tIvra jwaras etc., Rudra is propitiated.
Thus the Severed Head of Prajapati becomes the Mriga and hence Mriga-shiras; the
Rohita stri becomes the Rohini and behind these two, the Rudra with pinaka in
the act of punishing the prajapati, assumes the Arudra.
This episode of prajapati chasing rohita stri and eventually rudra punishing prajapati has the rahasya tattva of jyotishya sastra that Arudra, Mrigasiras & Rohini are in the same line and the nakShatra maNDala vyavastha seems to be as Arudra chasing Mrigasiras; Mrigasiras seems to be chasing Rohini.
So, the Rg Veda identifies the “svA” at times to be “nakShatra maNDala vyavastha”, at times to be “kAla tattva”; And the saMvatsara puruSha presiding on this “svA” Creates the Universe, Sustains the Universe and Dissolves the Universe into Himself.
The Purusha while creating the Universe first creates a Great Throb or nAda. Agama identifies this nAda to be “svA” or “svAna” which is represented as the Howl of Dog. The same Purusha dissolves the Universe and the sruti depicts this aspect as fiery dazzling sun. Agama identifies the terrible aspect to be mArtANDa bhairava. Such a Purusha that presides over the kAla tattva (svA / svAna) is called BHAIRAVA. And hence, He is called mahAkAla. You can see this Divine Form of mahAkAla in Ujjain and its bhairava aspect.
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