[Advaita-l] The meaning of Yoga in the Bhagawad gita.
srikanta.narayanaswami at yahoo.com
Tue Aug 23 09:03:13 CDT 2011
On 21st,Sunil Bhattacharya wrote:
One need not give such narrow interpretation of Yoga. Yoga is the means to unite and it has to be the skillful means to achieve that end. Karmayoga too is Yoga like the Bhaktiyoga. Pratyahara must be achieved in the Ashtangayoga. Does this not mean that the Indriy- vasanaas have to be got rid of before one goes to the next step of Dharana and Dhyana and thus achieve the Samadhi, the state of union with the goal. We should not lose sight of the Yoga upanishads.
Sunil K. Bhattacharjya
There is no question of giving either low or high interpretation of Yoga.one meaning of Yoga means to Yoke,to unite."Yujyate iti Yogah".The word "Yoga'is used to any method of "sadhana"like Karma yoga,Bhakthi Yoga,Jnana Yoga,Dhyana Yoga.So by the word in the above,it is used as a method.This word is not used as it is used in the "Yogasastra"of Patanjali.In the B.G it is used more as a function to attain the "Jnana" to the realisation of "Brahman"It is not used as per the "Yogasastra" which outlines the 'astanga"limbs:yama,niyama,asana,pranayama,pratyahara,dhyana,dharana,samadhi.Here,the "samadhi"in "Jna'is not the "samadhi"in "Yogasastra"(Vide:Shankara's commentary in B.G).Moreover,the Brahma jnana in Vedanta and the
"Yogasastra'have different goals.The purpose of Vedanta is the realisation of "Brahman",Atma Jnana.The Yoga in "Yogasastra'is for the attainment of "Samadhi",through the steps outlined above.As per Shankara,and his disciples as well as his predecessors,"Jnana Yoga'need not be combined with other methods,like "Yoga'of "Yogasastra".
If the "Karma vasanas"are not get rid off,then it will accumulate the "karmas"and the intellect cannot be purified.
In the B.G and the vedantha granthas,it is very clear that the accumulation of karmas will only obstruct the aspirant from reaching "Brahmajnana".Further,the statement of SriKrishna says:"Yogah karmasu kausalam".The 'Yoga"(not that of the "Yogasastra"is skill in action.The Lord says:
"Yogasthah kuru karmani sangam tyaktva Dhananjaya!
Siddhya siddhye samo bhutva samatvam yoga ucyate!!"-2.48.
"Oh!Dhananjaya.Being in Yoga,without attachment ,being same in both "Siddhi and asiddhi",do the karma."Equanimity is said to be "Yoga"
Yogasthah san kurukarmani kevalam Ishwarartham,tatrapi "Ishwaro me tushtatu".Iti sangham tyaktva Dhananjaya!Phala trshnashunyaiva kriyamane karmani satvashuddhija jnanprapti lakshana siddhih tadviparyayacha asiddhih,tayoh siddhisiddhorapi samah tulyah bhutva kurukarmani!Kosau yogah yatra sthitva karma kuru ityuktam?Idameva tat siddhyasiddhyoh samatvam yoga ucyate!!
The slokah 2.49 and 2.50 follows this.
"Durena hyavaram karma buddhi yogat Dhananjaya1
Buddhau sharamanvicca krpanah phalahetavah!1-2.49."
"Buddhiyukto jahatiha ubhe sukrtadushkrte!
tasmad yogaya yujyasva "Yogah karmasu kaushalam"-2.50.
In the above verse,Samatvam yoga ucyate",the Lord defines Yoga as "samatvam".This not according to "Yogasastra".
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