[Advaita-l] RE: sadyomukti and jIvanmukti
svidyasankar at hotmail.com
Thu May 20 23:27:31 CDT 2004
This will be my final response on this subject, for I find myself repeating
the same points. As far as jIvanmukti and what happens on physical death are
concerned, one must distinguish clearly between the knower of brahman as
nirguNa and the worshipper of saguNa brahman.
>Shankara says that "The pranas (organs) and elements of the knower of the
>Nirguna brahman get merged in It (divine) at death" in Brahma Sutra
>commentary (4.2.15). Thus, in case of jeevan mukta (a gyani), these parts
This applies to the knower of nirguNa brahman. The Sruti authority for this
is the earlier quoted bRhadAraNyaka text, "na tasya prANA utkrAmanti atraiva
>Now let us extrapolate this situation to liberated souls at Brahma Lok.
How do these liberated souls reach brahmaloka? Through the arcirAdi mArga,
as discussed in detail in the brahmasUtra's 4th adhyAya. Why do these souls
reach brahmaloka in the first place? Through worship of saguNa brahman. When
do they reach brahmaloka? After the death of the physical body. What are
they called before this event? jIvanmukta-s or guNAtIta-s or one of a few
other similar terms. They are not considered sadyomukta-s, because for them,
there is still the step of attaining brahmaloka after physical death.
>Badisa: I haven't come across such a term 'sadyo mukta' in spiritual texts.
>I will be grateful to you if you can provide me some reference. I know
>sadhyo mukti, as per sruti. By saying jeevan mukta and sadyomukta
sadyomukta is one who is in the state of sadyomukti. Sankara uses the term
quite a few times in his bhAshya-s.
>separately, it implies that there can be different muktas in the world. I
As I explained earlier, based on Sankara's texts, the knower of nirguNa
brahman is sadyomukta. People call him a jIvanmukta in a general fashion,
but it is only a manner of speaking. The sadyomukta is one who fully knows
"brahmAhamasmi", the instant the guru imparts the Sruti. He does not need
the further support of tyAga, vairAgya and other sAdhana-s to bolster his
knowledge and he does not need any practices, to counter the prArabdha karma
induced tendency towards further karma. Most often, SankarAcArya has this
kind of mukta in mind. There are others who need multiple teachings, as also
additional sAdhana-s, to counter the effects of prArabdha karma. These are
jIvanmukta-s. SankarAcArya accounts for this class also, most notably in the
bRhadAraNyaka commentary, under the vAkya, AtmetyupAsIta (1.4.7). If this
kind of jIvanmukta still has residual tendencies towards action, even at the
moment of physical death, he is in a similar kind of situation as the
knower/worshipper of saguNa brahman who performs the upanishadic upAsana-s.
On the death of the body, he passes to brahmaloka, rising through the nADI-s
in the body and through the devayAna. Please see SankarAcArya's comments
under the sUtra, anAvRttiS SabdAt.
ps. I will post my concluding portion of the Anandamaya topic in a couple of
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