# Kalasamuddesha or reckoning of time

Gregory Goode goode at DPW.COM
Thu Oct 31 02:37:23 CST 2002

```Thanks for this informative list of the time-periods!  How was the equivalency arrived at between, say, the small amounts of time (a vedha, an aNu, etc.) and the corresponding number of seconds?  All based on the lunar calendar and subdivisions?

--Greg

At 12:30 AM 10/31/02 -0500, Jaldhar H. Vyas wrote:

>This is the reckoning of time amongst men:
>
>1 paramaNu = 0.000040 seconds
>2 paramaNu = 1 aNu (0.000079 seconds)
>3 aNu = 1 traseraNu (0.000157 seconds)
>3 traseraNu = 1 truTi (0.000471 seconds)
>100 truTi = 1 vedha (0.04741 seconds)
>3 vedha = 1 lava (0.142 seconds)
>3 lava = 1 nimeSha (0.427 seconds)
>3 nimeSha = 1 kshaNa (1.28 seconds)
>5 kshaNa = 1 kashTA (6.4 seconds)
>15 kashTA = 1 laghu (96 seconds)
>2 ghaDi = 1 muhurta (48 minutes)
>7 or 8 ghadis = 1 prahara (168-192 minutes)
>8 prahara = 1 divasa (1 day) [1]
>1 divasa  = approximately 1 tithi. [2]
>15 tithi = 1 paksha (15 days)
>2 paksha =  1 masa (1 month) [3]
>2 masa = 1 rtu (season)
>3 rtus = 1 ayana (half-year) [4]
>6 rtu = 1 varsha (1 year) [5]
>
>This is the reckoning of time amonst the pitrs.
>
>1 human masa = 1 day of the pitrs
>30 days of the pitrs = 1 month of the pitras (= 2.5 human years)
>12 months of the pitrs = 1 year of the pitrs (= 30 human years)
>The lifespan of the pitrs is 100 years of the pitrs (= 3000 human years)
>
>This is the reckoning of time amonst the Devas.
>
>1 human year = 1 day of the Devas.
>30 days of the Devas = 1 month of the Devas. (= 30 human years)
>12 months of the Devas = 1 year of the Devas (= 360 human years)
>The lifespan of the Devas is 100 years of the Devas (= 36,000 human years)
>
>This is the reckoning of time for Brahma.
>
>12,000 years of the Devas =  1 day of Brahma (432,000,000 human years)
>this day is divided into 1000 parts called charaNas
>
>The charaNas are divided as follows:
>4 charaNas = satya yuga (1,728,000 human years) then
>3 charaNas = treta yuga (1,296,000 human years)
>2 charaNas = dvApara yuga (864,000 human years)
>1 charaNa = kali yuga (432,000 human years)
>then the cycle repeats itself so altogether there are 100 cycles of yugas
>in one day of Brahma
>
>Each day of Brahma is divided into  periods called Manvantaras which are
>ruled over by a Manu.
>
>30 days of Brahma = 1 month of Brahma (12,960,000,000 human years)
>12 months of Brahma = 1 year of Brahma (155,520,000,000 human years)
>25 years of Brahma = 1 kalpa (3,888,000,000,000 human years)
>2 kalpas = 1 parardha (7,776,000,000,000 human years) [6]
>2 parardhas = 100 years of Brahma
>            = the lifespan of Brahma (15,552,000,000,000 human years)
>
>We are currently in the 28th kaliyuga of the first day of the 1st year of
>the shvetavaraha kalpa of the second parardha of Brahma in the reign of
>the 7th Manu, Manu Vaivasvata as we recite every day in the samkalpa.
>
>Yet even the vastest measure of time is but a moment to Bhagavan.  Yet He
>is more subtle than even the most tiny measure of time.
>
>Notes
>-----
>[1] of the 8 praharas in a day, 4 have seven ghadis and 4 have 8 to make
>the required 60.
>
>[2] A divasa is a solar day while a tithi is a lunar day which is slightly
>shorter.  So occasionaly a tithi has to be doubled (vrddha) or omitted
>(kshaya) to keep in sync.
>
>[3] A paksha represents the waxing or waning phase of the moon.
>
>[4] rtu and  ayana are solar measures, the time for the sun to transit two
>signs of the zodiac, and the interval between equinoxes respecitively.
>
>[5] As a lunar year is shorter than a solar year, even with vrddha and
>kshaya tithis they go out of sync. So occasionally a "leap" (adhika) masa