Vaidya N. Sundaram
sundaram at ECN.PURDUE.EDU
Fri Aug 14 19:33:40 CDT 1998
Next, Sri Shamkara speaks of the six virtues needed in the disciple.
Only in the presence of these does mumukshutva arise. The following
describe the six characteristics of sama, dama, uparati, titika, sraddhaa
virajya vishhayavraataaddoshhadR^ishhTyaa muhurmuhuH .
svalakshye niyataavasthaa manasaH shama uchyate ..
Detaching the mind from the manifold sense pleasures again and again
perceiving their pernicious character, resting it permanently on one's
objective is called sama.
Sense pleasures have a beginning and an end, and have a limited duration
and become insipid. Seen these defects, vairaagya is attainedfrom them,
and the mind rests, unmoving and unchanging from its objective.
vishhayebhyaH paraavartya sthaapanaM svasvagolake .
ubhayeshhaamindriyaaNaaM sa damaH parikiirtitaH .
The retention of both kinds of senses in their respective orbs with
drawing them from sense objects is spoken of dama.
With respect to sama or mind-control, self - withdrawal of the mind was
spoken of as sama. On the other hand, karmendriyas like speech, and
jn~aanendriyas like ear cannot go out on their own to seek sense pleasures
like the mind, which can go of its own accord. Hence, using the mind as
reins, the mind itself as well as the other karmendriyas and
jn~aanendriyas should be withdrawn or held in check. this is called dama.
The pre-eminent uparati is the mind ceasing to function through anything
Even as the water in a tank goes through its outlets and engulfs the
fields etc., so too the mind which is inside comes out through the opening
of the ears etc., and is transformed into the objects like sound etc. This
transformation is called manovrtii (the mental mode). When the mind does
not go out, it cannot get transformed.
sahanaM sarvaduHkhaanaamapratiikaarapuurvakam.h .
chintaavilaaparahitaM saa titikshaa nigadyate ..
Endurance of all afflictions without countering aids, and without anxiety
or lament is said to be titiksaa.
When the mind (citta) is connected with anything external, it is
unaffected by the dualities of cold and heat. Even if these dualities
occur in relation to a person by virtue of karma or kaala etc., there will
arise titiksaa which makes for their enduran ce.
Also, this endurance is without anxiety as a mind with anxiety and lament is as distant as ever from (is unfit for) inquiry.
shaastrasya guruvaakyasya satyabud.hdhyavadhaaraNam.h .
saa shraddhaa kathitaa sad.hbhiryayaa vastuupalabhyate ..
Ascertainment of the scripture and of the words of the guru with
conviction about their truth is called sraddhaa by the good and as that by
which knowledge of Reality is obtained.
Even in matters related to sense perception, a man does not act without
any guidelines, or in other words, faith in another trust worthy person.
When this being the case for even gross objects, what needs be said
regards the meaning of scriptures which i s beyond sense perception. Even
in the Gita, Sri Krishna says, "Persons without sraddhaa in this dharma go
back along the road of death and samsaara ithout attaining Me".
sarvadaa sthaapanaM buddheH shuddhe brahmaNi sarvadaa .
tatsamaadhaanamityuktaM na tu chittasya laalanam.h ..
The perfect establishment of the buddhi always in the nirguna Brahman is
said to be samaadhaana, not the indulgence of the mind.
There may appear to be no difference between this kind samaadhana and
sama hich is of the firm of being firmly concentrated in one's objective.
But as stated in sloka 22-23) in the case of sama, there is need for
effort in respect of steadying the mind c haracterised by samkalpa and
vikalpa, i.e., determination and doubt. hence firmly fixing the buddhi
with conviction in the Pure Nirguna Brahman is samaadhaana. By this
reference is also made to the antahkarana freed from every kind of
determination or dou bt. That is why Sri Bhagavatpaada used the word
buddhi of the form of decision instead of the word manas. Also, in
speaking of sama, being concentrated on one's goal can also happen in
respect of saguna Brahman. Strictly speaking, sama is the means (saad
hana) and samaadhaana is its fruit, its culmination.
Vaidya N. Sundaram
The place, time, objects and their knower etc., projected in a dream
during sleep are all mithyA (an illusion/false). So too, here. in the
waking state, the world that is seen is a projection by one's own
ignorance. Likewise, this body, the senses, the breath, the ego etc.,
are all unreal. Therefore, That thou art, the peaceful, defectless,
supreme, non-dual Brahman. -- Adi Shankara in VivekacUdAmani.
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